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Chapter unit 1

PHI 1101 Chapter Notes - Chapter unit 1: Deductive Reasoning, Logical Form, Principle Of Bivalence


Department
Philosophy
Course Code
PHI 1101
Professor
Laura Byrne
Chapter
unit 1

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Midterm #1 Study Notes: Unit 1
Logical concepts and their respective properties
Statements Sets Arguments
True Consistent Logically strong
Inductively strong
Deductively valid
False Inconsistent Logically weak
Inductively weak
Deductively invalid
Statements
Definition: A statement is a sentence used to make a claim. Statements are capable
of being either true or false.
Also known as assertions or propositions.
The most basic concept of critical thinking
The property of being either true or false is what distinguishes a sentence from a
statement.
Sentence is a command, question, or wish.
Sets
Definition: Propositions that can be combined in groups or sets.
Consistency
Definition: A set of propositions is consistent if and only if it is possible for all of the
propositions in that set to be true at the same time. A set of propositions is
consistent if these propositions don’t contradict each other.
It is important to understand that consistency does not imply that all, or any
of the propositions in a consistent set are in fact true.
Two false statements can be consistent.
To logically evaluate a set of propositions as consistent is only to see that it is
possible for them to be true at the same time, not that they actually are true.
Inference
Definition: Inference is a relationship between two thoughts that occurs when
one thought supports or justifies or makes it reasonable to believe another
thought
Some of the thoughts we have aren’t linked to one another: sets don’t
have to be logically related.
Inference indicators: Since, thus, implies, consequently, because, it
follows that, given that.
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