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PHY1122 (47)

Fluid Dynamics 12.4 - 12.6

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University of Ottawa
Andrzej Czajkowski

• Fluid Dynamics: fluids in motion 12.4 Fluid Flow • Ideal fluid: incompressible, no internal friction (viscosity) • Flow line: path of an individual particle in a moving fluid • Steady flow: the overall flow pattern does not change with time o All elements passing through a given point follow the same flow line o Fluid velocity remains constant, but individual particles' velocities may change in direction & magnitude • Streamline: curve whose tangent at any point is the direction of the fluid velocity at that point o If flow pattern changes with time, streamlines do not coincide with flow lines in steady flow • Flow tube: tube formed by flow lines passing through edge of imaginary element like area o Flow lines cannot pass through the edges of flow tubes; fluids in different flow tubes cannot mix • Laminar flow: adjacent layers of fluid slide past each other and flow is steady • Turbulent flow: irregular or chaotic flow caused by abrupt changes in velocity or high flow rates o Flow pattern changes continually • Continuity equation o A1v1 = A2v2  Av = Volume Flow Rate  If compressible, add p: p1A1v1 = p2A2v2 12.5 Bernoulli's Equation • Pressure is different in regions of different cross section • Bernoulli's equation: work done on a unit of volume of fluid by surrounding fluid = sum of the changes o
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