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Chapter 10

POL1102 Chapter 10: Chapter 10

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University of Ottawa
Political Science
Daniel Pierre- Antoine

Chapter 10: World Politics Development - One of the debates sparked by globalization is whether it creates benefits for all the states in the international system or whether its rewards go disproportionately to industrialized states at the expense of the least and less developed countries - Least and less developed countries: countries with low average incomes relative to industrialized states, a reliance on primary product, exports, limited technology, and few social services - Realists and world systems theorists are likely to make similar assumptions about the international economic system o Realists make this argument based on their assumptions about the anarchic international system’s imperative to compete; world systems theorists will make the same argument based on their assumptions about the transcendence of the class system to the international level o Either will point to colonialism (one of the earliest forms of globalization) and to the Washington Consensus and other policies they deem opportunistic and extractive - Liberals suggest that free trade and liberalization are tides that “float all boats” higher, creating development opportunities for states that otherwise might have been left behind by the growth of the biggest economies o They point to the benefits of labor and capital mobility - Constructivists remind us that social relationships and normative structures influence not only development but also how we define it and conceive of it o Recently, the concept of holistic development has been introduced and embraced o Holistic development: mutually reinforcing improvements in health, education, human rights, governance, economic policy, and security - An international campaign in the mid-2000s pressured governments to reduce the poorest countries’ debt burdens in order to give them the financial flexibility to deal with crises like HIV/AIDS and famines - Debts burdens: multilateral debt, such as occurs when a government borrows from international institution (IMF, world bank), other governments, or foreign banks - The G-8 leaders decided in 2005 to forgive eighteen of the world’s poorest nations’ debts to the World Bank, the International Monetary Fun, and the African Development Bank and to double aid overall to $50 billion annually by 2010 o However, by 2008, the G-8 had met just one-third of the increase it pledged by 2010 o The G-8 summit was remarkable because it was the first at which members of civil society and representatives of developing countries and NICs were present. o It represented a focus on human development issues and more involvement of stakeholders than ever in the past o Member states: Britain, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, and the US) - Civil society: the totality of politically active civilian groups organized around specific issues - A strong civil society is a flexible web of citizen groups that influences a government’s decisions - At the international level, civil society includes NGOs, transnational corporations (TNCs), and other nonstate actors - In democratic states, civil society includes special-interest groups, lobbies, and social movements - In a state with fewer freedoms, civil society includes prodemocracy groups, cultural heritage organizations, and other progressive assemblies - Not all grassroots movements are equally laudable, and some might seek power, profit, or the imposition of their own morality or special interest - Civil society, moreover, is unaccountable and, arguably, undemocratic in its efforts to impose special interests - Modernization theories contend that the most important factors contributing to development, and the primary causes of underdevelopment, are the economic, political and cultural conditions within states - Modernization theories: socioeconomic theories of development involving assumptions about progress occurring in stages from traditional societies to modern ones - Modernization theorists argue that development occurs only when people can achieve status through merit or success, tolerate diversity, and accept new ideas o Politically, this requires the emergence of democracy, the rule of law, political opposition, human rights, and basic freedoms. o Economically, development means the creation of a market-based economy, a redistribution of wealth, and an openness to new technologies and industries. - For many modernization theorists, trade is the engine of economic growth - Two common growing pains of modernization are demographic transition and urbanization - Demographic transition: changes in the characteristics of human populations, including rate of growth, average age, literacy, and so forth - Urbanization: process by which a population shifts from the countryside and suburbs into cities - Critics of modernization theory 1) Critics question whether earlier paths of development can be duplicated today 2) Critics stress that traditional institutions are often difficult to change 3) Many theorists and policymakers contend that modernization theory is Eurocentric 4) Some political economists contend that the structure of the international trading system is biased and historically, wealth has not flowed from rich to poor states through trade and aid; rather just the opposite - Freedom house: a nonpartisan, non-profit organization promoting worldwide freedom and democracy; perhaps best known for its country ratings - Gabriel Almond and Sidney Verba argues that political culture feel into three types: parochial, subject, and participatory - Parochial political cultures were those in which people felt disassociated from politics, believed them to be a realm for the elite, and perceived the government as a mechanism for enforcement and collections. - People were also disassociated in subject political cultures, but they were more politically aware and saw government as a source of infrastructure and services - Participatory pollical cultures, were typified by people who believed their government was answerable to them and who even saw it as an extension of themselves - In contrast to modernization theory, which has its roots in classical economics and the liberal perspective on world trade, dependency theory is Marxist in nature, closely related to Immanuel Wallerstein’s world systems theory (Ch 2) and to the observations of Vladimir Lenin, who descried globalization as “monopoly capitalism,” the stage at which the class system took
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