Chapter 1 - John A. Macdonald and George-Etienne Cartier
The Confederation Debates in the Province of Canada
• The leading member of the “Grand Coalition” of Conservatives and Liberals formed in
1864 to govern the Province of Canada (Ontario & Quebec) and settle its constitutional
• The importance of instituting one system of government among the 5 provinces (Ontario,
Quebec, Nova Scotia…)
• Altering the Constitution is effect (based off the Constitution of Great Britain). After 78
years, knowledge to improve the constitution is available.
• Critique of theAmerican system of government (the power of the president) – the
“Canadian” way – one system of government instead of 5 branches
• If we were united together, we would form a political nationality with which neither the
national origin, nor the religion of any individual, would interfere.
• French-Canadians were concerned that they would lose their religion and nationality
Chapter 67 – Conservatism, Liberalism, and Socialism in Canada:An Interpretation
Gad Horowitz (1966)
• In the U.S., socialism is dead. But in Canada, it is still a prevalent force.
• Why? The strength of socialism in Canada is related to the relative strength of Toryism
and to the different position and character of liberalism in the two countries.
• Canadian socialism is weaker than European socialism, but stronger thanAmerican
• Louis Hartz “The Liberal Tradition inAmerica” – ideological development – departure
from Europe (fragments)
• U.S. & Canada – bourgeois fragments founded by bearers of liberal individualism who
have left the Tory end of the spectrum behind
• Explains the divergence in ideologies (choosing a different path)
• The absence of socialism is related to the absence of Toryism
• At its most extreme, socialism is a demand for the abolition of classes so that