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POL2104 (21)

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Political Science
Dominique Arel

Enough Electoral Fraud Collective Action Problems and PostCommunist Colored RevolutionsJoshua A Tucker In countries where citizens have strong grievances against the regime attempts to address these grievances in the course of daily lifeare likely to entail high costs coupled with very low chances of success in any meaningful sense consequently most citizens willchoose not to challenge the regime thus reflecting the nowwellknown collective action problem When a regime commits electoralfraud however an individuals calculus regarding whether to participate in a protest against the regime can be changed significantly Colored revolutions Bulldozer Revolution in Serbia in 2000 Rose Revolution in Georgia in 2003 Orange Revolution in Ukraine in 2004 Tulip Revolution in Kyrgyzstan in 2005 One additional common feature across the four colored revolutions is that they all took place in extremely corrupt societies electoral fraud is intended to refer to situations in which electoral results were knowingly tampered with in an effort to advantage one candidate or set of candidates over another two different types of fraud1 minor electoral fraud which affectselections in which results were tamp
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