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Linz and Stepan pages pages 38-54 reading notes.doc

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Political Science
Dominique Arel

Modern Nondemocratic RegimesLinz and Stepan consociational democracy and majoritarian democracy are subtypes of democracy and not different regimes a totalitarian regime is one that has eliminated almost all preexisting political economic and social pluralism has a unified articulated guiding utopian ideology has intensive and extensive mobilization and has a leadership that rules often charismatically with undefined limits and great unpredictability and vulnerability for elites and nonelites alike pluralist democratic theory especially the group theory individuals in civil society who enter into numerous freely formed interest groups that are relatively autonomous and often crisscrossing the many groups in civil society attempt to aggregate their interests and compete against each other in political society to influence state policiesinstitutional pluralism authoritarian regimes some limited political pluralism and often quite extensive economic and social pluralism many of the manifestations of the limited political pluralism and the extensive social and economic pluralism predate the authoritarian regime leadership is characterized by a political system in which a leader or occasionally small group exercises power within formally illdefined but actually quite predictable norms there are often extensive efforts to coopt old elite groups into leadership roles and there is some autonomy in state careers and in the military the norm is for the regime to coopt much of the leadership from groups that have some power presence and legitimacy that does not derive directly from the regime itself most authoritarian regimes have diffuse nondemocratic mentalities but they do not have highly articulated ideologies concerning the leading role of the party interest groups religion and many other aspects of civil political and economic society most authoritarian regimes never develop complex allinclusive networks of association whose purpose is the mobilization of the population however there is extensive and intensive mobilization of society into a vast array of regimecreated organizations and activities posttotalitarian PT concerning pluralism the defining characteristic of totalitarian is that there is no political economic or social pluralism in the polity and that preexisting sources of pluralism have been uprooted or systematically repressed mature PT there is a much more important and complex play of institutional pluralism within the state than in totalitarianism PT normally has a much more significant degree of social pluralism and in mature PT there is often discussion of a second culture or a parallel culture in contrast to totalitarianism a mature PT can also feature the coexistence of a stateplanned economy with extensive partial market experiments in the state sector that can generate a red bourgeoisie of state sector managers and a growing but subordinate private sector especially in agriculture commerce and services
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