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Canada (162,411)
POL2156 (10)


18 Pages

Political Science
Course Code
Stephanie Mullen

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CHAPTER 1 HOW WE KNOW WHAT WE KNOWHOW WE KNOW WE KNOWknowledge can be defined as a description of the state or operation of some aspect of the universe upon which people or groups are prepared to actknowledge does not hang in space it is a product of social processesthe production of knowledge usually begins when the public governments or groups of experts recognize the state of knowledge in a particular area is inadequatecommunities and governments have a say in how new knowledge is applied by debating and legislating for its appropriate usesknowledge is both a product and the property of social groupsto get answers we can do researchcollect evidence ourselvesor consult an authoritythe most common way by which we get answers to our questions is to consult authorities people can have at least 2 kinds of authority authority because of position and authority because of knowledgeresearch processgenerally adopted approach to doing researchit is guided by rules and principles for making confident statements about knowledge of the world based on our observationsif the subject of the research is controversial it will come under considerable scrutinyresearch is done to settle disputes about the nature and operation of some aspect of the universeCHAPTER 9 ETHICS IN HUMAN RESEARCHthe key to identifying ethical issues in research is to take the position of a participantethical issues involved in doing research on humans are very much the same for qualitative and quantitative researchmany research organizations and members of professional organizations are now formally required to conduct their research according to stated ethical principles and to demonstrate this to research ethic boards REBsthese ethical principles require that participants in the research must be able to give informed consent to being part of the research the identity of informants must be protected unless they give written permission to be identified in stored data and research reports researchers must not coerce participants into participating or divulging information and researchers must keep data for up to 7 years to protect themselves against charges of forging dataall our dealings with other people raise ethical issuesbe considerateyou are asking people to do you a favor appealing to their generosity to help you with your work not everyone will share your view of the importance of your workall universities now require all research involving humans to be reviewed by an ethics committeeboth funded and unfunded researchBasic Principles of Research Ethics1Researchers must treat with dignityrespect the persons groupsorganizations who participate in their researchthese issues involve respect for persons concern for social welfare and social justicepeople have feelings orientations cultures rights to privacy and rights to control their livesinformation about themthe rights of people are greater than the researchers need to knowsensitivity to others is very important but especially in social science researchthe term participant implies a degree of cooperative activity on the part of those we studyparticipants are not passive subjects but cooperate with us in our researchit is also a useful term because it includes groups cooperations organizationsneighborhoods as well as persons
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