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Chapter 3

PSY 1101 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Slow-Wave Sleep, Circadian Rhythm, Alpha Wave


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY 1101
Professor
Eleanor Riesen
Chapter
3

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Chapter 3: Consciousness and the Two-Track Mind:
Consciousness:
alertness; being awake vs. being unconscious
self-awareness; the ability to think about self
haig free ill; eig ale to ake a osious deisio
a persos etal otet, thoughts, and imaginings
Consciousness: our awareness of ourselves and our environment.
Forms of consciousness:
Some occur spontaneously: daydreaming, drowsiness, and dreaming.
Some are physiologically induced: hallucinations, orgasm, and food/oxygen starvation.
Some are psychologically induced: sensory deprivation, hypnosis, meditation.
Brain and Consciousness: Findings and Debates:
Finding: some rare uosious patiets hae rai resposes to oersatio.
One View: Synchronized, coordinated brain activity generates consciousness/or a sign that
conscious activity is occurring.
Conscious vs. Unconscious Activity - The Dual-Track Mind:
Conscious high track: our minds take deliberate actions we know we are doing; examples: problem
solving, naming an object, defining a word.
Unconscious low track: our minds perform automatic actions, often without being aware of them;
examples: walking, acquiring phobias, processing sensory details into perceptions and memories.
One study showed students showed brain activity related to pushing a button BEFORE they were
aware of their decision to push the button.
Why Have Two Tracks?
Possible benefit: not having to think about everything we do all at once
Examples:
You can hit or catch a ball without having to consciously calculate its trajectory.
You can speak without having to think about the definitions of each word.
You can walk and chew gu AND arr o a oersatio; siilar to Wilhel Wudts eperiet;
participants were quicker to push a button about seeing the ball fall than they were about being
aware of hearing the ball fall.
Unusual Consequences of Having a Dual-Track Mind:
Blindsight
Selective Attention
Selective Inattention
Blindsight:
In a case study where a woman with brain damage but no eye damage was unable to use her eyes to
report what was in front of her, but able to use her eyes to help her take actions; two mental tracks
used are high road: visual perception track and low road: visual action track; high road broken.
Selective Attention
Selective attention; our brain is able to choose a focus and select what to notice.
Selective Attention and Conversation
Pros: we can focus our mental spotlight on a conversation even when other conversations are going
on around us; known as the cocktail party effect:
Cons: we can hyperfocus on a conversation while driving a car, putting the driver and passengers at
risk.
Selective Attention: what we focus on, what we notice
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Selective Inattention: what we are not focused on, what we do not notice; our failure to notice part of
our environment when our attention is directed elsewhere.
Selective Inattention:
inattentional blindness
change blindness.
choice blindness; explained by cognitive dissonance.
Inattentional Blindness:
Various experiments show when our attention is focused, we miss seeing what others may think is
obvious to see.
Sleep as a State of Consciousness:
How Do We Learn About Sleep and Dreams?
We can monitor EEG/brain waves and muscle movements during sleep.
We can expose the sleeping person to noise and words, and then examine the effects on the brain
(waves) and mind (memory).
We can wake people and see which mental state goes with which brain/body state.
Sleep and Biological Rhythms:
 hour iologial lok.
90 minute sleep cycle.
Daily Rhythms and Sleep:
The circadian rhythm: the body’s natural 24-hour cycle, roughly matched to the day/night cycle of light
and dark.
Over the 24 hour cycle, the following factors vary, rising and falling over the course of the day and night:
body temperature
arousal/energy
mental sharpness
Daily rhythms vary from person to person and with age.
Light affects this rhythm through a process involving the brain.
Sleep Stages and Sleep Cycles: What is Measured?
Left eye movements, right eye movements, EMG (muscle tension), and EEG (brain waves).
Stages and Cycles of Sleep:
Sleep stages: distinct patterns of brain waves and muscle activity that are associated with different
types of consciousness and sleep.
Sleep cycles: the patterns of shifting through all the sleep stages over the course of the night. We
le through all the sleep stages i aout 9 iutes o aerage.
There are four types of sleep.
Alpha waves: the relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state.
Falling asleep:
Yawning creates a brief boost in alertness as your brain metabolism is slowing down.
Your breathing slows down.
Brain waves become slower and irregular.
You may have hypnagogic (while falling asleep) hallucinations.
Your brain waves change from alpha waves to NREM-1.
Non-REM Sleep Stages (deeper into sleep but not dreaming):
Stage two: brain wave patterns have been called theta waves, and NREM-3 involves delta waves.
NREM-3: is slow wave sleep, the former stages 3 and 4 combined--deep sleep.
REM Sleep:
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find more resources at oneclass.com
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