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Chapter 8

PSY 1101 Chapter Notes - Chapter 8: Long-Term Memory, Echoic Memory, Implicit Memory

Course Code
PSY 1101
Eleanor Riesen

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Chapter 8: Memory
We have a memory:
To retain useful skills, knowledge, and expertise
To recognize familiar people and places
To build our capacity to use language
To enjoy, share, and sustain culture
To build a sense of self that endures: what do I believe, value, remember, and understand?
To go eod oditioig i leaig fo epeiee, iludig lessos fo oe’s past ad fo
the experiences of others
Studying Memory:
Memory: the persistence of learning over time, through the storage and retrieval of information and
Three behaviors show that memory is functioning.
Recall: is analogous to fill-in-the-lak.; retrieve information previously learned and unconsciously
Recognition is a fo of ultiple hoie; identify which stimuli match your stored information.
Relearning is a measure of how much less work it takes you to learn information you had studied
efoe, ee if ou do’t eall haig see the ifoatio efoe.
How does Memory Work?
An Information-Processing Model:
Encoding: the information gets into our brains in a way that allows it to be stored
Storage: the information is held in a way that allows it to later be retrieved
Retrieval: reactivating and recalling the information, producing it in a form similar to what was
Models of Memory Formation:
The Atkinson-Shiffrin Model (1968): proposed by Richard Atkinson/Richard Shiffrin.
1. Stimuli are recorded by our senses and held briefly in sensory memory.
2. Some of this information is processed into short-term memory and encoded through rehearsal.
3. Information then moves into long-term memory where it can be retrieved later.
Modifying the Model:
Working memory: more goes on in short-term memory besides rehearsal. (Rehearsal: mentally
echoing a term)
Automatic processing: information that goes straight from sensory experience into long-term
From Stimuli to Short-Term Memory
The stimuli encountered are picked up by senses and processed by the sensory organs generates
information that enters sensory memory.
Before information disappears from sensory memory; details are selected to pay attention to and is
sent to working memory for rehearsal/other processing.
Working Memory: Functions.
Holds information not just to rehearse it, but to process it (such as hearing a word problem in math
and doing it in your head).
Auditory rehearsal: repeating password to memorize it; executive functions: choosing what to
attend to/respond to; isospatial skethpad: rearranging room furniture in mind.
Short-term memory integrates information from long-term memory with new information coming in
from sensory memory.
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Dual-Track Processing:
Explicit and Implicit Memories
Explicit/declarative memories: facts and experiences that we can consciously know and recall.
Acquired through effortful processing; formed through: studying, rehearsing, thinking, processing,
and then storing information in long-term memory.
Implicit memories: fats/epeiees e ae’t’ full aae of; do’t delae/talk aout it;
memories formed that do’t’ go though all the Atkiso-Shriffrin stages.
These memories are forced through automatic processing; without our awareness that we are
building a memory; without rehearsal/other processing in working memory.
Automatic Processing:
Automatic processing: experiences automatically processed into implicit memory without
effort/working memory processing:
Procedural memory: such as knowing how to ride a bike, and well-practiced knowledge such as
word meanings.
Conditioned associations: such as a smell that triggers thoughts of a favorite place.
Information about space: being able to picture where things are after walking through a room.
Information about time: retracing a sequence of events if you lost something
Information about frequency: thikig, I just otied that this is the thid tetig die I’e passed
The Encoding and Processing of Memory:
Sensory Memory:
Sensory memory: the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information before it is processed into
short-term, working, or long-term memory.
It is briefly captured through echo (3-4 s) or image (1/20th of a s) of all the sensations we take in.
Auditory sensory memory, echoic memory, triggered after someone asks what they just said even if
ou ee’t’ paig attetio; etiee eight last ods fo ehoi eo.
Sensory memory is more brief with images because they contain more info than echoes; overwhelm
to store all details our eyes captures; also why attention selects important details to process; and so
seso eoies do’t’ itefee ith e iages oig i.
Echoic memory can be held longer because so much experience has little competing auditory input.
Visual Sensory (Iconic) Memory:
Visual seso ioi eo has ee sho though Geoge “pelig’s epeiets;
He (1934) exposed people to a 1/20th of-a-second view of a grid of letters and a tone which told
them which row of letters to pull from iconic memory and recall.
Without the tone, people recalled about 50 percent of the letters; with the tone, recall for any of
the rows was typically 100 percent.
Encoding Memory: Capacity of Short-Term and Working Memory:
George Miller (1920) proposed: short-term memory can hold 7 +/-2 information bits.
More recent research: average person without distraction can hold 7 digits, 6 letters, or 5 words.
Working Memory: (uses rehearsal, focus, analysis, linking) has greater capacity than short-term
memory; varies by people with better concentration.
Duration of Short-Term Memory (STM):
Lloyd Peterson and Margaret Peterson did an experiment (1959) to show duration of short term
1. People ee gie tiplets of osoats e.g., VMF.
2. To prevent rehearsing, the subjects had to do a distracting task.
3. People were then tested at various times for recall.
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