Chapter 3 consciousness and the twotrack mind.doc

193 views16 pages
25 Mar 2012
Department
Course
Professor

For unlimited access to Textbook Notes, a Class+ subscription is required.

Chapter 3: Consciousness and the Two-Track Mind
*earn a point pg. 85-107 (pg. 119 pdf)
Introduction
-consciousness is our awareness of ourselves and our environment
-it allows us to assemble information from many sources as we reflect on our past and plan
for our future
-it focuses our attention when we learn complex concepts and behaviours
I. Cognitive Neuroscience
-tries to understand the biology of consciousness
-scientists assume that the mind is what the brain does
cognitive neuroscience- the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with our
mental processes
dual processing- "we know more than we know we know"
-perception, memory, thinking, language, and attitudes all operate on two levels; a
conscious, deliberate "high road" and an unconscious, automatic "low road"
-e.g.: -in vision, a visual perception track enables us unconsciously to create the mental
furniture that allows us to think about the world and to recognize things and to
plan future actions
-a visual action track guides our conscious, moment-to-moment actions
selective Attention
-your conscious awareness focuses on only a very limited aspect of all that you experience
cocktail party effect
-your ability to attend to only one voice among many
selective inattention
-inattentional blindness
-having your attention directed somewhere else and being so focused on that thing
that you don't notice anything else
change blindness
-a form of inattentional blindness
-e.g.: after a brief visual interruption, a big Coke bottle may disappear, a railing may rise,
clothing color may change but the viewers won't notice
change deafness
e.g.: in an experiment, 40% of people focused on repeating a list of challenging words
failed to notice a change in the person speaking
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 16 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
choice blindness
-form of inattention
-e.g.: -120 volunteers were shown 2 female faces for 2-5 seconds and was asked which
face was more attractive
-the researchers then put the photos face down and handed viewers the one they
had chosen, asking them to explain their choice
-the researcher uses sleight-of-hand to switch the photos, showing the viewers
the face they had not chosen
-the volunteers didn't notice and even readily explained why they preferred the
face they had actually rejected
choice-blindness blindness
-using the same volunteers, when asked whether they would notice such a switch in a
"hypothetical experiment", 84% insisted they would
II. Sleep
circadian rhythm
-our bodies roughly synchronize with the 24-hour cycle of day and night through a
biological clock (the circadian rhythm)
-bright light in the morning tweaks the circadian clock by activating light-sensitive retinal
proteins which control the circadian clock by triggering signals to the brain's
suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)
-the SCN does its job by causing the brain's pineal gland to decrease its
production of the sleep-inducing hormone melatonin in the morning or increasing
it in the evening
-artificial light delays sleep
A. Sleep Stages
-every 90 minutes, we pass through a cycle of 5 distinct sleep stages
-yawning stretches your neck muscles and increases your heart rate, which increases
alertness
alpha waves- slow waves on the EEG that occur during your awake but relaxed state
stage 1- slowed breathing and irregular brain waves that occur as you slip into sleep
-you may experience fantastic images resembling hallucinations or have a sensation of
falling or of floating weightlessly (hypnagogic sensations)
stage 2- occurs for 20 minutes and is characterized by the periodic appearance of sleep
spindles (bursts of rapid, rhythmic brain-wave activity)
-sleep talking can occur during any stage of sleep
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 16 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
stage 3- transitional stage of sleep; your brain emits large, slow delta waves which last for
about 30 minutes and it is hard for you to wakeup
stage 4- deep sleep stage; large, slow delta waves occur
-it is at the end of stage 5 where children may wet the bed or begin sleepwalking
REM sleep
-rapid eye movement sleep
-about an hour after you first fall asleep you ascend for your initial sleep dive and return
through stage 3 and stage 3
-during REM sleep, your brain waves become rapid, your heart rate becomes rapid and
breathing rate becomes irregular
-every half-minute your eyes dart around in a momentary burst of activity behind closed
lids
-genitals become aroused during REM sleep
-the brain's motor cortex is active but your brainstem blocks its messages leaving the
muscles relaxed
-also known as paradoxical sleep where the body is internally aroused by externally calm
-rapid eye movements announce the beginning of a dream
-the sleep cycle repeats itself every 90 minutes
-deep sleep that occurs in stage 4 gets progressively briefer and disappears altogether after
-REM and stage 2 sleep periods get longer
B. Why Do We Sleep?
-the brain keeps an accurate count of sleep debt for at least 2 weeks
-if we don't sleep we being to feel terrible; sleep always wins in the tiredness battle
C. The Effects of Sleep Loss
-functioning below peak levels
-difficulty studying
-diminished productivity
-tendency to make mistakes
-irritability
-fatigue
-sleep deprivation increases the hunger-arousing hormone ghrelin and decreases its hunger-
suppressing partner, leptin
-increases the stress hormone cortisol which stimulates the body to make fat
-suppress immune cells that fight off viral infections and cancer
-alters metabolic and hormonal functioning in ways that mimic aging and are conductive to
hypertension and memory impairment
D. Sleep Theories
1) Sleep protects
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 16 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get access

Grade+
$10 USD/m
Billed $120 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
40 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class
Class+
$8 USD/m
Billed $96 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
30 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class