PSY 1102 Chapter Notes - Chapter 15: Mood Disorder, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Insomnia

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PSY1102
Thursday March 3rd, 2016
Chapter #15
Psychological Disorders
Perspectives on Psychological Disorders
Defining Psychological Disorders
Psychological disorders are viewed as patterns of thoughts, feelings, or actions that are
deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional
A harmful dysfunction that shows one or more of 4 criterion
oCriterion
o1. Deviation from statistical norms: a typical behavior
o2. Deviation from social norms: behavior is disturbing
o3 maladaptiveness of behavior: does behavior affect well being of
individual/social group
o4. Rationally unjustifiable behavior: unsupported by popular acceptance
Understanding Psychological Disorders
In the middle ages they thought of disorders to be a curse of the demon and would do
horrible things to take it out of people
The Medical Model
Applying a medical model to understand psychological disorders
They look for symptoms, with test, and treatment is based of the diagnosis
They see psychological disorders as similar to physical ones 1. As illnesses. 2. Required
diagnosis based on symptoms. 3. Need treatment
Madness is not demon possession but a sickness of the mind cause by severe stresses
and inhumane conditions
1800s the medical world began searching for physical causes and treatments of mental
disorders
Medical model: is recognizable in the terminology of the mental health movement: a
mental illness needs to be diagnosed on the basis of its symptoms and treated though
therapy, which may include time in a psychiatric hospital
The Biopsychosocial Approach
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PSY1102
Thursday March 3rd, 2016
This approach recognizes that mind and body are inseparable
Negative emotions contribute to physical illness, and physical abnormalities contribute
to negative emotions
Combining factors interact to produce psychological disorders
oFactors are biological, psychological and sociocultural
oEx. Anorexia Nervosa: biological: slow metabolism psychological: thinking their
fat sociocultural: the standard of beauty
Classifying Psychological Disorders
Help investigate and uncover causes of different abnormal behaviors
oGrouping individuals according to similarities in abnormal behavior help clarify
causes
Classification orders and describes symptoms also predicting its future course, imply
appropriate treatment, and stimulate research to its cause
Help plan treatment based on how similar patients responded
DSM-IV-TR: a authoritative scheme for classifying psychological disorders: it defines a
diagnostic process and 16 clinical syndromes
Classification manual of the American psychiatric association
oDefines major diagnostic categories
oClassification used by most mental health experts in Canada and the US
Traditional classification: neuroses and psychoses
oNeuroses: group of disorders characterized by anxiety, personal unhappiness,
and maladaptive behavior
oAssumed to have problems coping with internal conflicts
oIndividual can usually function in society but not at full capacity
oPsychoses: behavior and thought processes so disturbed that person is out of
touch with reality
oCannot cope with daily life
oUsually need hospitalization
oNeuroses and psychoses: both are fairly broad categories
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PSY1102
Thursday March 3rd, 2016
oNeither are DSM categories: not precise enough
oEach category contains a number of classifications within DSM
oNeurotic disorders: anxiety, somatoform, dissociative, affective (mood)
oPsychotic disorders: schizophrenic, paranoid, effective (certain types)
oPsychotic behavior: distorted perceptions and irrational ideas
Labeling Psychological Disorders
Once we label someone we view them differently, labels create preconceptions that
guide our perceptions and our interpretations
Labels can have a bias perception and they can also change reality
A diagnostic label is not a cause
Can overlook differences between people with same diagnoses and not treat each
person as unique
Labels can carry stigma
oIs the behavior, not the person being labeled
oValue judgments can be associated with labels
Anxiety Disorders
Some of us, are more prone to notice and remember threats; this tendency may place us
at risk for one of the anxiety disorders: marked by distressing persistent anxiety or
dysfunctional anxiety-reducing behaviors
A group of disorders where anxiety is main symptom
Also includes disorders where maladaptive behaviors used to control anxiety
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Tends to overreact to mild stressors
Symptoms: inability to relax, disturbed sleep, fatigue, headaches, dizziness
High tension each day
Feels vaguely uneasy/apprehensive
In which a person is unexplainably and continually tense and uneasy
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