PSY 1102 Chapter Notes - Chapter 13-15: Word Salad, Head Injury, Fear Conditioning

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28 Sep 2016

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Chapters 13 and 15
Chapter 13 Personality
Definition of personality -- a person's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling and acting,
.The typical way we think feel and behave.
Psychodynamic theories
Psychodynamic theories of personality view human behaviour as a dynamic interaction
between the conscious and unconscious.
The theories of psychodynamic descend from Freud's psychoanalysis.
Freud's Psychoanalytic Perspective: Exploring the Unconscious
Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to
unconscious motives and conflicts; interpret the unconscious to find out how
to treat a disorder
Untapped memories that are mostly unacceptable thoughts, feelings.
Information processing of which we are unaware of.
Free association
In psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person
relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how embarrassing
Freud's theory is basically that the mind is mostly hidden
He believed you can glimpse the unconscious, in people free association, beliefs,
habits and symptoms but also in slips of the tongue and pen, also jokes were an
expression of sexual tension or aggression.
Personality Structure
Freud's idea of the mind's structure
An iceberg image is used to demonstrate Freuds idea that the mind is mostly
hidden beneath the conscious surface. Note that the ID is totally unconscious,
but ego and superego operate both unconsciously and consciously. The ID,
Ego and superego interact.
Mostly conscious; makes peace between id and the super ego
Operating on the reality principle, seeks to gratify the Id's impulses in
realistic ways that will bring long-term pleasure
Super ego (preconscious)
Internalized ideals
The voice of your moral compass that forces the ego to consider not
only the real but the ideal, focus on how we ought to behave, strives
for perfection
Unconscious energy
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Operates on the pleasure principle, immediate gratification (extreme
sexual and aggressive tendencies)
Personality Development
Erogenous zones
Pleasure-sensitive areas of the body
Children pass through a series of psychosexual stages, where the erogenous zone
change (different focus)
Children cope with their threatened feelings (like the phallic stage), repressing them.
Oral (0-18)
Pleasure centers on the mouth, sucking, chewing
Anal (18-36)
Pleasure focuses on bowel and bladder elimination
Phallic (3-6yrs)
Pleasure zones is in the genitals; coping with incestuous sexual
Latency (6 to puberty)
A phase of dormant sexual feelings
Genital (puberty on)
Maturation of sexual interests
Children incorporate their parents values into their developing superegos
Defense Mechanisms
As members of social groups, we must control our sexual and aggressive impulses
Leads to anxiety
Defense Mechanism
Tactics that reduce or redirect anxiety by distorting reality
Indirect or unconsciously
Reaction formation
The Neo-Freudian and Psychodynamic Theorists
Followers of Freud that agreed with many of his basic ideas but broke off in two ways
Placed more emphasis on the conscious mind's role in interpreting
They doubted that sex and aggression were all-consuming-motivations
Also , they believed that childhood social, not sexual, tensions are crucial for
personality formation
Jung came up with the collective unconscious and archetypes, derived from our
species universal experiences
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Assessing Unconscious Processes
Projective tests aim to provide a "psychological X-ray" by asking to describe an
ambiguous stimulus or tell a story about it
There are different views of this test and many people have criticized this as a method
to diagnose patients
It has showed to be reliable / valid with patients that have anxiety and hostility
Evaluating Freud's Psychoanalytic Perspective and Modern Views of the Unconscious
Modern Research Contradicts Many of Freud's Ideas
Development is lifelong not just childhood
Infants don't have mature enough neural networks to sustain as much
emotional trauma that Freud assumed
Freud's theory of childhood sexuality arose from hi skepticism of stories of
childhood sexual abuse
New ideas of why we dream (chapter 3)
Repressed sexuality is not proven to cause psychological disorders
His ideas fail to predict such behaviours and traits, after the fact explanations
of any characteristic. No testable predictions
Modern Research Challenges the Idea of Repression
Research shows that high stress and associated stress hormones enhance
Modern Unconscious Mind
We have limited access to all that goes on in our minds (based on Freud)
Today the unconscious is seen as a information processing that occur without
our awareness
Humanistic Theories
View personality with a focus on the potential for healthy personal growth
Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers were pioneering theorists
Abraham Maslow's Self Actualizing Person
We are motivated by a hierarchy of needs
If our physiological needs are met, we become concerned with personal saftey, then
we seek to love, to be loved, and to love ourselves then we seek self-esteem, then
ultimately we seek self-actualization and self transcendence
Self actualization -- the process of fulfilling our potential
Self-transcendence -- meaning, purpose, and communion beyond the self
Carl Rogers' Person-Centered Perspective
Agreed with much of Maslow's thinking
People are good and endowed with self-actualizing tendencies
Unless in an environment that inhibits growth
Three conditions for growth environment
Central feature of personality is ones self-concept
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