PSY 1102 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Lewis Terman, Theory Of Multiple Intelligences

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29 Sep 2016
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PSY1102I – Intelligence
I. What is Intelligence
A. Definition
A.1.Hundreds of definitions, not everyone agrees
A.2.Components of intelligence
A.2.a. Rational thought
A.2.b. Problem solving
A.2.c. Learning from experience
A.2.d. Adaptation and adjustment to new environments
B. One or several intelligences?
B.1.Factor analysis approach
B.1.a. In order to answer the above question, researchers use sophisticated statistical techniques
B.1.b. Allows researching to identify common factors that may underlie clusters of test items
B.1.c. Spearman
B.1.c.1. One co-creator of factor analysis
B.1.c.2. Humans have different abilities, but they don’t represent multiple intelligences
B.1.c.3. General intelligence underlies all abilities
B.1.d. Thurstone
B.1.d.1. There is no general intelligence
B.1.d.2. Multiple, distinct, independent intelligences
# Word fluency
# Verbal comprehension
# Spatial ability
# Perceptual speed
# Numerical ability
# Inductive reasoning
# memory
B.2.Contemporary approaches
B.2.a. Gardner
B.2.a.1. Refuses the idea of general intelligence
B.2.a.2. Multiple independent intelligences
B.2.a.3. Logic
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# Brain damage causes us to lose some abilities and retain others
# Savants
> High in one intelligence, low in others
# Prodigies
# Different developmental courses
B.2.a.4. 9 intelligences
# Linguistic
# Logical mathematical
# Musical
# Bodily kinesthetic
# Spatial
# Interpersonal
# Intrapersonal
# Existential
B.2.b. Stenberg
B.2.b.1. Multiple intelligences, but only 3
B.2.b.2. Triarchic theory
# Analytical intelligence
# Creative intelligence
# Practical intelligence
B.3.Emotional intelligence
B.3.a. Knowing your emotions
B.3.b. understanding emotions in general
B.3.c. Managing our emotions
B.3.d. Self-motivation
B.3.e. Delay of gratification
B.3.f. Recognizing other people’s emotions
B.3.g. Managing other people’s emotions
C. Intelligence and creativity
C.1.Up to a certain point, there is an association between creativity and IQ
C.1.a. Up to 120, intelligence and creativity both go up
C.1.b. After 120, it makes no difference
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C.1.c. IQ necessary for creativity, but not sufficient in itself
C.2.Components of creativity
C.2.a. Expertise
C.2.b. Nonconformity
C.2.c. Curiosity
C.2.d. Persistence
C.2.e. Creative thinking
C.2.f. Visual imagery
C.2.g. Intrinsic motivation
C.2.h. Positive effect
C.2.i. Creative environment
C.3.The brain
C.3.a. In creative people, both hemispheres engaged
C.3.b. In non-creative people, only right hemisphere engaged
II. Assessing intelligence
A. Origins of intelligence testing
A.1.Galton
A.1.a. 1800s
A.1.b. First to assess intellectual strengths
A.1.c. Results were not necessarily accurate
A.2.Alfred Binet
A.2.a. Commissioned by the French government to devise a test to help identify children with special
needs
A.2.b. Developed the idea of a mental age
A.2.c. Hoped this would help identify children in need of closer attention
A.3.Lewis Terman
A.3.a. Adapted the Binet questionnaire to fit Californian children and added the new tier of “superior
adult”
A.4.William Stern
A.4.a. Derived the IQ
A.4.b. (Mental age / chronological age) x 100
A.4.c. Worked well for children, but not adults
B. Modern tests
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