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Chapter 4

PSY 1102 Chapter 4: Complete Chapter Reviews- Chapter 4

5 pages44 viewsFall 2018

Course Code
PSY 1102
Victor Emerson

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Complete Chapter Reviews Psychology
Chapter 4: Nature, Nurture and Human Diversity
Genes are biochemical units of heredity that make up chromosomes, the
thread like coils of DNA
When genes are turned on, they provide the code for creating proteins that
form our bodies building blocks
Most human traits are influenced by many genes acting together
Human genome is shared genetic profile that distinguishes humans from
other species
o Individual level of all genetic material in organismic chromosomes
Behaviour geneticists, study the relative power and limits genetic and
environmental influences on behaviour
Identical twins (monozygotic) and fraternal twins ( dizygotic), separated,
biological versus adopted relatives allows researchers to tease apart the
influences of heritability and environment
Research on identical twins allowed for same genes while testing the effects
of different home environment’s
Adoptive families let researchers maintain the same home environments
while studying different genetic traits
Heritable individual differences do not necessarily explain gender, ethical
group differences
o Shared family environments have little effect on personality
o Person’s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity from the
first week suggests genetic predisposition
Genetic effect appears in psychological differences such as heart rate and NS
Heritability describes the extent to which variation among members of a
group can be attributed in gene
Heritable individual differences ( height and intelligence) don’t imply to
heritable group differences
Genes explain why some people are taller than others but not why some
people are taller today than years ago
Molecular genetics research on structure and function of genes
o How genes influence many human traits
One goal
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o Is how the structure and function of genes interact with our
environment to influence behaviour, genes that together orchestrate
complex traits (body weight, sexual orientation)
o Environments can block or trigger genetic expressions
o Epigenetics studies the influences on gene expression that occur
without changes in DNA
Genetic tests can now reveal at-risk populations for dozens of diseases
Search is on to discover markers for genetically influenced disorders
Prenatal screening can cause ethical dilemmas
o Testing offspring for sex has enabled selective abortions
Some cultures has resulted in millions of male births
Future screening for vulnerability to psychological disorders could deprive
the world of great talents
o Tolstoy, Dickson were all troubled people
Evolutionary psychologists seek to understand how our traits and behaviour
tendencies are shaped by natural selection
o Charles Darwin principle in biology
o Anticipated application of evolutionary principles in biology
o As genetic variations increase the odds of reproducing and surviving
in an environment, they are likely to be passed on to future
Variations arise from mutations ( random errors in gene replication)
o Others form new gene combinations at conception
We share genetic legacy and are predisposed to behave in way that promoted
our ancestors surviving and reproducing
Men have recreational view of sexual activity
Women tend to have relational view
Evolutionary psychologists reason that men’s attraction to multiple healthy
fertile-appearing partners increase their chances at spreading their genes
Women incubate and nurse babies they increase their own and their
children’s chances of survival by searching for mates with potential long-
term investments in their joint offspring
Some believe that evolutionary psychologists start with an effect and work
o And try and explain today’s behaviour off of what our ancestors did
years ago
More immediate explanation takes into account the social scripts
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