PSY1102 - Chapter 5.docx

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14 Jul 2014
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PSY 1102 - CHAPTER 5- DEVELOPING THROUGH THE LIFE SPAN
I. Introduction
Developmental psychology: researchers studying how we change from birth to
death
Development: patterns of change. Begin at conception and continue through the
life span
The 5 major issues in developmental psychology:
1. Nature/Nurture
2. Continuity/ stages ex. Caterpillar to butterfly
3. Stability/ change
4. Critical periods
5. The impact of early experiences
II. Prenatal Development and the New Born
A. Conception
1/5000 eggs will mature
over 200,000,000 sperm will fight for the egg
fewer than half of the fertilized eggs survive beyond the first two weeks
B. Prenatal Development
Three stages of the prenatal development:
1. Germinal Stage
-lasts 10-14 days
- first two weeks of pregnancy
-baby is called the zygote
-attached itself to the wall of the uterus
2. The Embryonic Stage
- baby is now called embryo
- placenta will filter out pathogens and harmful things
- umbilical cord forming
- major organs will develop
- nervous system develops
3. The Fetal Stage
- starts at week 9 till the end of pregnancy
- baby is now called the fetus
- bones begin to harden
- baby begins to move
- explosive growth of the brain
Environmental Influences
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Teratology- study the causes of birth defects
Teratogens- anything that causes a birth defect
Effects depend on:
- dose
- time of exposure (embryonic is the most vulnerable)
Maternal Factors
Prescription and non- prescription drugs
Psychoactive drugs
Infectious diseases (ex. HIV, Herpes, HPV)
Nutrition
Emotional States and stress
Age
Temperature (hot tubs)
Exposure to environmental hazards
Paternal Factors
Low vitamin C
Smoking
Exposure to radiation, pesticides, etc
Age
Genetic Susceptibility
baby boys are more vulnerable to baby girls
C. The Competent New Born
Methods of Study
Brain waves – electrodes
sucking response
Orienting Reflex
Habituation- something we are used to and eventually don’t give it any attention
Competencies:
reflexes
- rooting
- sucking
- stepping
- grasping
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