PSY 1102 Chapter Notes - Chapter 16: Lobotomy, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Sertraline

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18 Oct 2014

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PSY1102- Chapter 16- Therapy
Treating Psychological Disorders:
- Philippe Pinel and Dorothea Dix pushed for gentler, more human treatments and
for constructing mental hospital
- Therapies can be classified into two main categories
- Psychotherapy: Treatment involving psychological techniques; consists of
interactions between a trained therapist and someone seeking to overcome
psychological difficulties or achieve personal growth
- Biomedical Therapy: Prescribed medications or procedures that act directly on the
person’s physiology
- Some therapists combine techniques
- Eclectic Approach: An approach to psychotherapy that, depending on the clients
problems, uses techniques from various forms of therapy
oHalf of all psychotherapists describe themselves as using this approach
Psychological Therapies:
- Each psychological therapy is built on one or more of psychology’s major theories
Psychoanalysis and Psychodynamic Therapy:
- Psychoanalysis: Sigmund Freud’s therapeutic technique. Freud believed the
patient’s free associations, resistances, dreams, and transferences- and the
therapist’s interpretations of them- released previously repressed feelings,
allowing the patient to gain self-insight
- Few clinicians practice therapy the way Freud did
- Psychoanalytic theory presumes that healthier, less anxious living becomes
possible when people release the energy they had previously devoted to id-ego-
superego conflicts
- Freud’s therapy aimed to bring patients repressed/disowned feelings into
- Psychoanalytic theory emphasizes the formative power of childhood experiences
and their ability to mold the adult
- Freud turned to free association
- Resistance: In psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden
oDefending sensitive material
oMental blocks when recalling memories
- Interpretation: In psychoanalysis, the analysts noting supposed dream meanings,
resistances, and other significant behaviors and events in order to promote insight
oMay illuminate underlying wishes, feelings, conflicts
- Transference: In psychoanalysis, the patient’s transfer to the analyst of emotions
linked with other relationships
oYou may gain insight into current relationships by exposing these feelings
oMay experience positive/negative feelings towards your analyst
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- Psychodynamic Therapists: Therapy deriving from the psychoanalytic tradition
that views individuals as responding to unconscious forces and childhood
experiences, and that seeks to enhance self-insight
oTry to help people understand current symptoms
oFocus on themes across important relationships
oPatients meet with therapists face to face and explore and gain perspective
into defended-against thoughts and feelings
- Psychodynamic therapists may reveal past relationship troubles as the origin of
current difficulties
- Interpersonal Psychotherapy: Aims to help people gain insight into the roots of
their difficulties
oVariation of psychodynamic theory
oEffectively treated depression
oGoal: Symptom relief in the here and now
oThe therapist concentrates on current relationships and improving
relationship skills
Humanistic Therapies:
- The humanistic perspective emphasizes peoples inherent potential for self-
- Aim to boost self-fulfillment by helping people grow in self- awareness and self-
- Insight Therapies: A variety of therapies that aim to improve psychological
functioning by increasing a person’s awareness of underlying motives and
- Humanistic therapists differ from psychoanalytic therapists in many ways:
oThey aim to boost self-fulfillment by helping them grow in self-
oPromoting growth, not curing illness, is the focus of therapy
oThe path to growth is taking immediate responsibility for ones feelings
and actions rather than uncovering hidden determinants
oConscious thoughts are more important than the unconscious
oPresent and future are more important than the past
- Client-Centered Therapy: A humanistic therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, in
which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine,
accepting, empathic environment to facilitate clients growth
- Rogers encouraged therapists to exhibit genuineness, acceptance, and empathy
- Active listening: Empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and
clarifies. A feature of Rogers’ client centered therapy.
- Rogers stated that one can’t be completely nondirective, but the therapists most
important contribution is to accept and understand the client
- Unconditional Positive Regard: A caring, accepting, nonjudgmental attitude,
which Carl Rogers believed would help clients to develop self-awareness and
- Rogers suggested three main points to listening more actively in your own
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oInvite Clarification
oReflect Feelings
Behavior Therapies:
- Behavior Therapy: Therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of
unwanted behavior
oDoubt the healing power of self-awareness
oAssume that problem behaviors are the problem and the application of
learning principles can eliminate them
oView maladaptive symptoms as learned behaviors that can be replaced by
constructive ones
- One cluster of behavior therapies comes from Ivan Pavlov’s principles
- Pavlov showed that we learn much of our behaviors through classical
conditioning and reconditioning might be a solution
- Counterconditioning: A behavior therapy procedure that uses classical
conditioning to evoke new responses to stimuli that are triggering unwanted
behaviors; includes exposure therapies and aversive conditioning
oPairs the trigger stimulus with a new response that’s incompatible with
- Mary Cover Jones:
oExperiment of Peter and the rabbit where she made him like rabbits by
showing them to him during his snack time
oShe successfully countered his behavior
- Exposure Therapies: Behavioral techniques, such as systematic desensitization
and virtual reality exposure therapy, that treat anxieties by exposing people to the
things they fear and avoid
oHave patients face their fear and to overcome their fear of the fear
response itself
- Systematic Desensitization: A type of exposure therapy that associates a pleasant
relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli. Commonly
used to treat phobias.
oThe goal is substituting a positive response for a negative response to a
harmless stimulus
- Using progressive relaxation, the therapist would train you to relax one muscle
group after another, until you achieve a blissful state of complete relaxation and
- After several sessions, you move to actual situations and practice what you had
only imagined before, beginning with relatively easy tasks and gradually moving
to more anxiety-filled ones
- Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy: An anxiety treatment that progressively
exposes people to electronic simulations of their greatest fears, such as airplane
flying, spiders, or public speaking
oHave treated many different people with many different fears
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