PSY 1102 Chapter 4,5,10,12,13,15,16,14: Psychology – Textbook Notes.pdf

884 views99 pages
20 Apr 2015
Department
Course

For unlimited access to Textbook Notes, a Class+ subscription is required.

!
"!
#$%&'()(*%!+!,-./0((1!2(/-$!
!
Chapter(4(–(Nature(vs.(Nurture(
(
34)/456)!789)4-8&-$!
!
Culture'–'the'enduring'behaviours,'ideas,'attitudes,'values'and'traditions'shared'by'a'group'of'people'
and'transmitted'from'one'generation'to'the'next.'
'
Variation(Across(Cultures(
:4;68!86/45-!;68<9-$/$!'4;68!=<>-5$</%?!!
@-!$--!(45!6=6A/60<)</%!<8!&4)/456)!>65<6/<(8$!6;(8*!(45!0-)<-9$!68=!(45!>6)4-$!
Norms'–'an'understood'rule'for'accepted'and'expected'behaviour.'Norms'prescribe'“proper”'behaviour.'
2(5;$!*5-6$-!/'-!$(&<6)!;6&'<8-5%!68=!95--!4$!95(;!$-)9BA5-(&&4A6/<(8?!!
@'-8!&4)/45-$!&())<=-C!/'-<5!=<99-5<8*!8(5;$!(9/-8!A-5A)-.?!!
@'-8!D-!=(8E/!48=-5$/68=!D'6/E$!-.A-&/-=!(5!6&&-A/-=C!D-!;6%!-.A-5<-8&-!culture'shock.!
!
Variation(Over(Time(
F<1-!0<()(*<&6)!&5-6/45-$C!&4)/45-$!>65%!68=!&(;A-/-!9(5!5-$(45&-$C!68=!/'4$!->()>-!(>-5!
/<;-?!
@-!&688(/!96<)!/(!0-!<;A5-$$-=!0%!&4)/45-!&'68*-$E!05-6/'B/61<8*!$A--=!
G8=!D-!&688(/!-.A)6<8!/'-;!0%!&'68*-$!<8!/'-!'4;68!*-8-!A(()C!D'<&'!->()>-$!965!/((!
$)(D)%!/(!6&&(48/!9(5!'<*'B$A--=!&4)/456)!/568$9(5;6/<(8$?!!
34)/45-$!$'6A-!(45!)<>-$!
!
Culture(and(the(Self(
Individualism''giving'priority'to'one’s'own'goals'over'group'goals'and'defining'ones'identity'in'terms'
of'personal'attributes'rather'then'group'identifications.''
78=<><=46)<$/$!65-!(9/-8!95(;!2(5/'!G;-5<&6C!@-$/-58!H45(A-C!G4$/56)<6!(5!2-D!I-6)68=!
78=<><=46)<$/$!$'65-!/'-!'4;68!8--=!/(!0-)(8*?!!
F-$$!9(&4$-=!(8!*5(4A!'65;(8%!68=!=(<8*!/'-<5!=4/%!/(!/'-!*5(4A!
H6$<)%!;(>-!<8!68=!(4/!(9!$(&<6)!*5(4A$!
Collectivism'–'giving'priority'to'the'goals'of'one’s'group'(often'one’s'extended'family'or'work'group)'
and'defining'one’s'identity'accordingly.'
34/!(99!95(;!96;<)%C!*5(4A$!68=!)(%6)!95<-8=$C!%(4!D(4)=!)($-!/'-!&(88-&/<(8$!/'6/!'6>-!
=-9<8-=!D'(!%(4!65-?!
H.?!J(4/'!K(5-6!
,'-%!'6>-!;(5-!(8!/56=</<(8!68=!$'65-=!A56&/<&-$!
G>(<=<8*!=<5-&/!&(895(8/6/<(8C!0)48/!'(8-$/%C!68=!48&(;9(5/60)-!/(A<&$C!&())-&/<><$/$!(9/-8!
=-9-5!/(!(/'-5E$!D<$'-$!68=!=<$A)6%!6!A()</-C!$-)9B-996&<8*!'4;<)</%?!!
L6%!0-!$'%!<8!8-D!*5(4A$!68=!;(5-!-6$<)%!-;06556$$-=?!
!
@</'<8!;68%!&(48/5<-$C!/'-5-!65-!6)$(!=<$/<8&/!&4)/45-$!5-)6/-=!/(!(8-E$!5-)<*<(8C!-&(8(;<&!
$/6/4$C!68=!5-*<(8?!
M()48/65%!;<*56/<(8N!6!$A65$-)%!A(A4)6/-=C!&'6))-8*<8*!-8><5(8;-8/C!68=!6!$'<9/!/(!6!
&6A</6)<$/!-&(8(;%!'6>-!9($/-5-=!<8=-A-8=-8&-!68=!<8=<><=46)<$;!
Cultural'neuroscience'<$!$/4=%<8*!'(D!8-45(0<()(*%!68=!&4)/456)!/56</$!<89)4-8&-!-6&'!(/'-5?!!
@-!65-!0<(A$%&'($(&<6)!&5-6/45-$!
!
Culture(and(Child(Rearing(
3'<)=5-8!6&5($$!A)6&-!68=!/<;-!'6>-!/'5<>-=!48=-5!>65<(4$!&'<)=B5-65<8*!$%$/-;$?!!
J4&'!=<>-5$</%!<8!&'<)=!5-65<8*!&64/<(8$!4$!6*6<8$/!A5-$4;<8*!/'6/!(45!&4)/45-E$!D6%!<$!/'-!
(8)%!D6%!/(!5-65!&'<)=5-8!$4&&-$$94))%?!
!
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 99 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
!
O!
Developmental(Similarities(Across((
@-!(9/-8!96<)!/(!8(/<&-!/'-!$<;<)65</<-$!A5-=<$A($-=!0%!(45!$'65-=!0<()(*%!
26/<(86)!$/-5-(/%A-$!-.6**-56/-!=<99-5-8&-$!/'6/C!6)/'(4*'!5-6)C!65-!;(=-$/!
G&/46))%!&(;A65-=!D</'!/'-!A-5$(8B/(BA-5$(8!=<99-5-8&-$!D</'<8!*5(4A$C!0-/D--8B*5(4A!
=<99-5-8&-$!65-!$;6))?!!
o G$!'4;68$!D-!65-!;(5-!6)<1-!/'68!=<99-5-8/!
H>-8!=<99-5-8&-$!within!6!&4)/45-C!$4&'!6$!/'($-!$(;-/<;-$!6//5<04/-=!/(!56&-C!65-!(9/-8!-6$<)%!
-.A)6<8-=!0%!68!<8/-56&/<(8!0-/D--8!(45!0<()(*%!68=!(45!&4)/45-?!
P<99-5-8&-$!65-!Q8(!;(5-!/'68!$1<8!=--AR!
!
S-8=-5!P->-)(A;-8/!
!
T<()(*<&6)!$-.C!<8!/458C!'-)A$!=-9<8-!(45!genderN!/'-!0<()(*<&6)!68=!$(&<6)!&'65&/-5<$/<&$!0%!
D'<&'!A-(A)-!=-9<8-!;6)-!(5!9-;6)-?!
(
Gender(Similiarities(and(Differences(
:4;68!;6)-$!68=!9-;6)-$!65-!*-8-/<&6))%!<=-8/<&6)!-.&-A/!9(5!(8-!(9!/'-!UV!&'5(;($(;-$!D-!
A($$-$$?!!
L6)-!(5!9-;6)-C!*<>-$!8(!&)4-$!/(!>(&604)65%C!<8/-))<*-8&-C!68=!'6AA<8-$$C!(5!/(!/'-!
;-&'68<$;$!0%!D'<&'!%(4!$--C!'-65C!)-658!68=!5-;-;0-5?!
o Q(AA($</-R!$-.!<$C!<8!5-6)</%C!%(45!>-5%!$<;<)65!$-.?!!
G)/'(4*'!6=4)/!;-8!/-8=!/(!9--)!0-//-5!60(4/!/'-<5!6AA-6568&-!68=!D(;-8!60(4/!/'-<5!
0-'6><(5!68=!-/'<&$C!/'-5-!<$!)<//)-!*-8=-5!=<99-5-8&-!68=!(>-56))!$-)9B-$/--;!
3'(($-!%(45!*-8=-5!68=!A<&1!%(45!>4)8-560<)</%!
,D(!;6W(5!=<99<&4)/<-$!<8!&'656&/-5<X<8*!/'-!=<99-5-8&-$!0-/D--8!;6)-$!Y!9-;6)-$Z!
o G>(<=<8*!$/-5-(/%A-$!68=!A5-&(8&-A/<(8$C!-8$45<8*!/'6/!D-!5-)%!(8!-><=-8&-!68=!
o J(;-D'6/!5-)6/-=C!(0$-5><8*!56/'-5!/'68!&(;A65<8*!0-'6><(45$!68=!6//</4=-$!/(!
$(&<6)!8(5;$?!!
H.6;A)-$!(9!(0W-&/<>-!=<99-5-8&-$!
o S<5)$!-8/-5!A40-5/%!-65)<-5!/'68!0(%$!
o @(;-8!)<>-!)(8*-5!/'68!;-8!
o @(;-8E$!0(=<-$!&(8/6<8!;(5-!96/C!<8&)4=<8*!$40&4/68-(4$!96/!
o @(;-8E$!0(=<-$!D-<*'!)-$$!68=!65-!$'(5/-5!/'68!;-8!
o @(;-8E$!0(=<-$!'6>-!U[\!)-$$!;4$&)-!/'68!;-8E$!0(=<-$?!
G)$(!/'-5-!65-!*-8=-5!=<995-8&-$!<8!/-5;$!(9!$(;-!$-8$(5%!&6A60<)</<-$C!-;(/<(86)!-.A5-$$<(8C!
68=!95-]4-8&%!(9!A$%&'()(*<&6)!=<$(5=-5$?!
o H.C!0-&64$-!&()(45!0)<8=8-$$!<$!)<81-=!/(!/'-!^!&'5(;($(;-!_(9!D'<&'!;6)-$!'6>-!
(8)%!(8-`C!&()(45!0)<8=8-$$!<$!;4&'!;(5-!&(;;(8!<8!;6)-$!/'68!<8!9-;6)-$?!
!
S-8=-5!68=!G**5-$$<(8!
L-8!6=;</!/(!;(5-!6**5-$$<(8!
T(/'!*-8=-5$!-8*6*-!<8!><()-8/!&5<;-C!04/!655-$/!56/-!<$!'<*'-5!9(5!;-8!/'68!D(;-8?!!
Aggression'–'physical'or'verbal'behaviour'intended'to'hurt'someone!
,'-!6**5-$$<(8!*-8=-5!*6A!A-5/6<8$!/(!=<5-&/!physical'6**5-$$<(8!56/'-5!/'68!>-506)C!
relational!6**5-$$<(8?!
78!=6/<8*!5-)6/<(8$'<A$C!><()-8/!6&/$!65-!(9/-8!;4/46)!
:48/<8*C!9<*'/<8*C!68=!D655<8*!65-!A5<;65<)%!;-8E$!6&/<></<-$!
L-8!6)$(!/-8=!/(!-.A5-$$!;(5-!$4AA(5/!9(5!D65C!68=!-8*6*-!<8!D65C!/'68!D(;-8?!
o 78!/'-!A)6%!F%$<$/56=6C!D(;-8!5-94$-=!/(!'6>-!$-.!D</'!/'-<5!'4$068=$!48/<)!/'-%!
-8=-=!/'-!D65?!!
!
S-8=-5!68=!J(&<6)!#(D-5!
#-(A)-!D(5)=D<=-!'6>-!A-5&-<>-=!;-8!6$!;(5-!=(;<868/C!9(5&-94)!68=!<8=-A-8=-8/C!D(;-8!
6$!;(5-!=-9-5-8/<6)C!845/45<8*C!68=!699<)<6/<>-!
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 99 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
!
a!
L($/!$(&<-/<-$C!;-8!65-!$(&<6))%!=(;<868/!
G$!)-6=-5$C!;-8!/-8=!/(!0-!;(5-!=<5-&/<>-C!->-8!64/(&56/<&N!D(;-8!/-8=!/(!0-!;(5-!
=-;(&56/<&C!;(5-!D-)&(;<8*!(9!$40(5=<86/-$E!<8A4/!<8!=-&<$<(8!;61<8*!
L-8!65-!;(5-!)<1-)%!/(!4//-5!(A<8<(8$C!D(;-8!/(!-.A5-$$!$4AA(5/!
L-8!65-!)<1-)%!/(!6&/!6$!A(D-594)!A-(A)-!(9/-8!=(!+!/6)1<8*!6$$-5/<>-)%C!<8/-554A/<8*C!<8</<6/<8*!
/(4&'-$C!$/65<8*!;(5-C!$;<)<8*!)-$$C!68=!6A()(*<X-!)-$$?!
J4&'!0-'6><(45$!'-)A!$4$/6<8!$(&<6)!A(D-5!<8-]4</<-$?!!
L-8E$!A(D-5!'48*-5!<$!;(5-!-.A-&/-=!68=!6&&-A/-=!
L-8!*-/!A6<=!;(5-!/'68!D(;-8!9(5!/'-!$6;-!D(51?!
!
S-8=-5!68=!J(&<6)!3(88-&/-=8-$$!
b-;6)-$!65-!;(5-!(A-8!68=!5-$A(8$<>-!/(!9--=06&1!/'68!65-!;6)-$?!
L-8!65-!;(5-!)<1-)%!/(!'6X65=!68!68$D-5!56/'-5!/'68!6=;</!/'6/!/'-%!=(8E/!18(D!+'the'male'
answer'syndrome!
b-;6)-$!65-!;(5-!<8/-5=-A-8=-8/!/'68!;6)-$!
Females(use(conversation(more(to(explore(relationships,(while(mean(use(conversation(
more(to(communicate(solutions.(
@(;-8!D(5)=D<=-!(5<-8/!/'-<5!<8/-5-$/$!68=!>(&6/<(8$!;(5-!/(!A-(A)-!68=!)-$$!/(!/'<8*$!
o L-8!A5-9-5!D(51<8*!D</'!/'<8*$C!D(;-8!A5-9-5!D(51<8*!D</'!A-(A)-!
@(;-8!65-!)-$$!(9/-8!=5<>-8!0%!;(8-%!68=!$/6/4$!68=!65-!;(5-!6A/!/(!(A/!9(5!5-=4&-=!D(51!
'(45$!
T(/'!;-8!68=!D(;-8!4$46))%!/458!/(!D(;-8!9(5!D'(;!/'-%!$'65-!/'-<5!D(55<-$!68=!'45/$!
D</'C!68=!0(/'!'6>-!5-A(5/-=!/'-<5!95<-8=$'<A$!D</'!D(;-8!65-!4$46))%!;(5-!<8/<;6/-C!
-8W(%60)-!68=!845/45<8*?!!
L-8!>6)4-!95--=(;!68=!$-)9B5-)<68&-!
S-8=-5!=<99-5-8&-$!<8!$(&<6)!&(88-&/-=8-$$C!A(D-5!68=!(/'-5!/56</$!A-61!<8!)6/-!6=()-$&-8&-!
68=!-65)%!6=4)/'((=!
G$!/--86*-5$C!*<5)$!0-&(;-!A5(*5-$$<>-)%!)-$$!6$$-5/<>-!68=!;(5-!9)<5/6&<(4$N!0(%$!0-&(;-!
;(5-!=(;<8--5<8*!68=!48-.A5-$$<>-?!
!
The(Nature(of(Our(Gender:(Our(Biology(
@'6/!<$!*-8=-5c!d8!/'-!(8-!'68=C!*-8=-5!<$!=-9<8-=!0%!(45!&'5(;($(;6)!;61-B4A!_D</'!
6$$(&<6/-=!5-A5(=4&/<>-!(5*68$!68=!$-&(8=65%!$-.!&'656&/-5<$/<&$`?(
78!=(;6<8$!D'-5-!;-8!68=!D(;-8!'6>-!96&-=!$<;<)65!&'6))-8*-$C!/'-!$-.-$!65-!$<;<)65C!->-8!
D'-8!=-9<8<8*!/'-!A-59-&/!;6/-?!
T4/!<8!=(;6<8$!A-5/<8-8/!/(!;6/<8*C!*4%$!6&/!)<1-!*4%$?!
J4&'!*-8=-5!=<99-5-8&-$!;6%!0-!<89)4-8&-=!*-8-/<&6))%C!0%!(45!=<99-5<8*!$-.!&'5(;($(;-$C!
68=!A'%$<()(*<&6))%C!95(;!(45!=<99-5<8*!&(8&-8/56/<(8$!(9!$-.!'(5;(8-$?!!
,'-!e!&'5(;($(;-!<8&)4=-$!6!$<8*)-!*-8-!/'6/!/'5(D$!6!;6$/-5!$D</&'!/5<**-5<8*!/'-!/-$/-$!
/(!=->-)(A!68=!A5(=4&-!/'-!A5<8&<A6)!;6)-!'(5;(8-C!/-$/($/-5(8-?!!
b-/6)!=->-)(A;-8/!&68!0-!=<$/450-=!0%!'(5;(86)!>65</6/<(8$?!b(5!-.6;A)-(
o b-;6)-$!6)$(!'6>-!/-$/($/-5(8-!04/!)-$$!(9!</?!!
o P<99-5-8/!A6//-58$!9(5!;6)-$!68=!9-;6)-$!=->-)(A!48=-5!<89)4-8&-!(9!/'-!;6)-E$!
*5-6/-5!/-$/($/-5(8-!68=!/'-!9-;6)-E$!(>65<68!'(5;(8-?!!
S-8=-5!=<99-5-8&-$!6)$(!6AA-65!<8!/'-!'<AA(&6;A4$C!/'-!6;%*=6)6C!68=!<8!/'-!>()4;-!(9!*5-%!
;6//-5!>$?!D'</-!;6//-5?!
79!%(4!-.A($-!6!9-;6)-!/(!-.&-$$!/-$/($/-5(8-C!%(4E))!4$46))%!-8=!4A!D</'!*<5)!Q/(;0(%$R!D'(!
'6>-!6!0(%<$'!6AA-6568&-?!!
o T4/!A5-86/6)!-.A($45-!=(-$!8(/!5->-5$-!/'-<5!*-8=-5!<=-8/</%N!/'-$-!*<5)$!><-D!
/'-;$-)>-$!6$!*<5)$C!8(/!6$!0(%$!
f-)6/<>-)%!'<*'!/-$/($/-5(8-!)->-)$!<8!A5-86/6)!6;8<(/<&!9)4<=!A5-=<&/!$(;-D'6/!*5-6/-5!;6)-B
/%A<&6)!A)6%!68=!;(5-!6/')-/<&!$4&&-$$!9(5!0(/'!;6)-$!68=!9-;6)-$?!
,'-!-99-&/!(9!-65)%!-.A($45-!/(!$-.!'(5;(8-$!<$!0(/'!=<5-&/C!<8!/'-!*<5)E$!0<()(*<&6)!
6AA-6568&-C!68=!<8=<5-&/!<8!/'-!<89)4-8&-$!(9!$(&<6)!-.A-5<-8&-$!/'6/!$'6A-!'-5?!!
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 99 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get access

Grade+
$10 USD/m
Billed $120 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
40 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class
Class+
$8 USD/m
Billed $96 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
30 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class