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Chapter 12

Chapter 12 Review Class 6.docx


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY 1102
Professor
Christine Mountney
Chapter
12

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CHAPTER 12 REVIEW: EMOTIONS, STRESS & HEALTH
Theories of Emotion
1: What are the components of an emotion?
- Emotions are psychological responses of the whole organism involving an
interplay among (1) physiological arousal, (2) expressive behaviors, and (3)
conscious experience differences have been found in activity in the brain’s
cortical areas, in use of brain pathways, and in secretion of hormones associated
with different emotions. Polygraphs measure several physiological indicators of
emotion, but they are not accurate enough to justify their widespread use in
business and law enforcement. The use of guilty knowledge questions and new
forms of technology may produce better indications of lying.
Embodied Emotion
2: What is the link between emotional arousal and the autonomic nervous system?
- Emotions are both psychological and physiological. Much of the physiological
activity is controlled by the autonomic nervous system’s sympathetic (arousing)
and parasympathetic (calming) divisions. Our performance on a task is usually
best when arousal is moderate, though this varies with the difficulty of the task.
3: Do different emotions activate different physiological and brain-pattern
responses?
- Emotions may be similarly arousing, but there are some subtle physiological
responses that distinguish them. More meaning
4: To experience emotions, must we consciously interpret and label them?
- Schachter and Singer’s two-factor theory of emotion contends that the cognitive
labels we put on our states of arousal are an essential ingredient of emotion.
Lazarus agreed that cognition is essential: Many important emotions arise from
our interpretations or inferences. Zajonc and LeDoux, however, believe that some
simple emotional responses occur instantly, not only outside our conscious
awareness but before any cognitive processing occurs. The interplay between
emotion and cognition again illustrates our dual-track mind.
Expressed Emotion
5: How do we communicate nonverbally?
- Much of our communication is through the silent language of the body. Even very
thin (seconds-long) filmed slices of behavior can reveal feelings. Women tend to
be better at reading people’s emotional cues.
6: Are nonverbal expressions of emotion universally understood?
- Some gestures are culturally determined. Facial expressions, such as those of
happiness and fear, are common the world over. Cultures differ in the amount of
emotion they express.
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7: Do our facial expressions influence our feelings?
- Expressions do more than communicate emotion to others. They also amplify the
felt emotion and signal the body to respond accordingly.
Experienced Emotion
8: What is the function of fear, and how do we learn fears?
- Fear has adaptive value because it helps us avoid threats and, when necessary,
cope with them. We are predisposed to some fears, and we learn others through
conditioning and observation.
9: What are the causes and consequences of anger?
- Anger is most often evoked by events that not only are frustrating or insulting but
also are interpreted as willful, unjustified, and avoidable. Blowing off steam
(catharsis) may be temporarily calming, but in the long run it does not reduce
anger. Expressing anger can actually make us angrier.
10: What are the causes and consequences of happiness?
- A good mood boosts people’s perceptions of the world and their willingness to
help others (the feel-good, do-good phenomenon). The moods triggered by the
day’s good or bad events seldom last beyond that day. Even significant good
events, such as a substantial rise in income, seldom increase happiness for long.
We can explain the relativity of happiness with the adaptation-level phenomenon
and the relative deprivation principle. Nevertheless, some people are usually
happier than others, and researchers have identified factors that predict such
happiness.
Stress and Health
11: What is stress?
- Walter Cannon viewed stress, the process by which we appraise and respond to
events that challenge or threaten us, as a “fight-or-flight” system. Hans Selye saw
it as a three-stage (alarm resistance- exhaustion) general adaptation syndrome
(GAS).
12: What events provoke stress responses?
- Modern research on stress assesses the health consequences of catastrophic
events, significant life changes, and daily hassles. The events that tend to provoke
stress responses are those that we perceive as both negative and uncontrollable.
13: Why are some of us more prone than others to coronary heart disease?
- Coronary heart disease, North America’s number one cause of death, has been
linked with the competitive, hard-driving, impatient, and (especially) anger-prone
Type A personality. Under stress, the body of a reactive, hostile person secretes
more of the hormones that accelerate the buildup of plaque on the heart’s artery
walls. Type B personalities are more relaxed And easygoing. Chronic stress also
contributes to persistent inflammation, which heightens the risk of clogged
arteries and depression.
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