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Chapter 2

PSY 2105 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Observer-Expectancy Effect, Dependent And Independent Variables, Cultural Psychology

Course Code
PSY 2105
David Collins

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Chapter 2
Scientific Research
-Scientific method: rules for designing, conducting, evaluating and
communicating research.
-The role of theory:
oTheory: set of statements that describe a relation between a behavior and
the factors that influence that behavior.
oLaw/principle: proven statement supported by strong evidence.
oHypothesis: how one variable affects the other
oHas two roles:
Organize research findings
Guides new research
-Objectivity and Measurement
oObjectivity: procedures that should be made so that it could be agreed on
by everyone
oPrimary goal is to let any other scientist perform the experiment in the
exact same way.
oIt reduces bias
oObjectivity can be achieved by:
Focusing on observable behaviours
Making sure the behaviours understudy is measurable
Use a quantitative approach to measurement
Types of Research
-Descriptive research:
oConducting interviews and recording results
oNo manipulation, describes things the way they are
oTakes 3 forms:
Observational methods
Naturalistic observations: observing behavior in a natural
oObserver bias
oObserver influences: knowing you’re being
oStructured observation: observing behavior in a
setting controlled by the researcher
Interview methods
Can be open-ended or structured
Open-ended questions are studied qualitatively and
structured questions quantitatively
It only relies on the subjects knowledge, so it may not
reflect actual behavior, or of the public
Case studies
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