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Chapter 4

PSY 3109 Chapter 4: Motivation CH 4 Notes


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY 3109
Professor
Erin Maloney
Chapter
4

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Motivation CH 4 Notes: core human motives
Heather’s story of amputating her leg, overcoming a lot of pain, and achieving a goal of
maintaining independence
Everyone has different motives/goals/priorities, but there are common CORE HUMAN
MOTIVES that represent NEEDS for life/growth/development
Needs: internal pressure sources that push us towards goals
NEED or else we get physical/mental illness, death…
Biological/physiological needs (water, food, sleep, and temperature)
driven by deficiency state - want homeostasis
… Maslow’s controversial idea of needs beyond this…
Psychological needs needed for mental health, wellbeing, growth… not
biological survival per say (e.g. need for affection)
Want to enjoy life, not just survive
Core motive criteria:
Elicit goal-oriented behaviour to satisfy motive (general)
Have positive outcome as adaptive and beneficial: benefits facilitate
survival/health, and failure to fulfill motive would be consequential
Are universal (across all countries/cultures, personality types, etc)
Self Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan)
Core human motives for: autonomy, competence, and belonging
Essential to human development/wellbeing and therefore the “right
reasons” to pursue goals
You should have goals for these three areas (related to happiness, AND
self-esteem)
Balance of fulfillment across ALL areas important for wellbeing
Focuses on quality of motivation (3 right reasons to achieve goal = better
outcome)
Another researcher found self-esteem and pleasure among this success as
well
Another study found happiness rose when goal was motivated by the right
reasons, but happiness wasn’t affected for outside reasons even if person
was successful at achieving their assigned goal
Criticisms of SDT
Motives that drive human and animal behavior are the same, i.e. mate acquisition
and retention, and parenting”, behavior motivated to pass genes (but then why do
we do things other than sex, or choose not to have kids?)
Only 3 core motives is limiting; what about security and self-esteem?
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