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Chapter 1

PSY 4372 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Transactional Analysis, American Psychological Association, Intelligence Quotient

Course Code
PSY 4372
Andrea Ashbaugh

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Chapter 1: The Evolution of Clinical Psychology
Evidence Based Practice: a practice model that involves the synthesis of information drawn from research and
systematically collected data on the patient in question, the clinicians professional experience, and the patients
preferences when considering health care options.
not just for clinical psychologists but is now integrated into a variety of healthcare practices
involves synthesizing information from research ad systematically collected data
emphasizes the importance of informing patients based on the most research-based approach
Critiques of the science-based model:
critics of a science-based approach to clinical psychology have expressed the following concern
group-based data cannot be used in working with an individual
we cant afford to wait for research
everyone is a unique constellation of experience and general psychological principles don’t often apply to the
Counselling: generic term to describe a range of mental health professions with various training and licensing.
Counselling Psychology: less severe problems are treated, more geared towards the general population.
Clinical Psychology: assessment and treatment of psychopathology.
Psychiatrists: more qualified to evaluate if mental health issues are a result of physical illnesses. Linking emotional
disturbance and physical illness.
emphasizes pharmacological over psychological treatment
the number of medical students seeking psychiatric training/residencies has fallen by 40% since the 1980s
Availability of Mental Health Service Providers (Figure)
Clinical Psychology History
Biopsychosocial Approach: a theoretical framework that takes into account biological, psychological, and social
influences on health and illness.
Hippocrates: bodily fluid theory that imbalances in the levels of blood, black bile, yellow bile, and phlegm
responsible for mental disturbances.
Plato: societal forces and psychological needs in the development and alleviation of mental disorders
Aristotle: biological determinants of mental disorders.
Saint Vincent De Paul: mental and physical illnesses were caused by natural forces and that the extreme
manifestations of mental disturbances sys as psychotic behaviour were not caused by witchcraft or satanic
Enlightenment in 1700s advanced the idea that problems could be analyzed and solved.
Timeline of psychological disorders (figure).
1800s: began to use scientific studies to understand human behaviour.
Wilhelm Wundt: studied sensation and perception, establishing the first psychological laboratory and was a central
figure in advocating for psychology as the study of human experience.
coined the term mental tests
Emil Kraepelin and Alfred Binet made the earliest contributions to clinical psychology as a field of study and
Kraepelin: believed that psychological disorders were biological and there were no methods available to treat them
at the time.
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