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Chapter 2

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University of Ottawa

Chapter 2 The Biology of the MindThe Biology of the mindBody is composed of cellsThere are nerve cells that conduct electricity and talk to one another by sending chemical messages across a tiny gap that separates themspecific brain systems serve specific functionswe integrate info processed in these different brain systems to construct out experience of sights and sounds meanings and memories pain and passionout adaptive brain is wired by experience Neural Communication Neuronsneuron nerve cell is a basic building block of the nervous system Sensory neurons carry messages from the bodys tissues and sensory organs inward to the brain and spinal cord for processingThe brain and spinal cord then send instructions out to the bodys tissue via Motor Neuronsinformation is processed in the brains internal communication system via its interneurons Neurons consist of a cell body and its branching fibers dendrites receive information and conduct it toward the cell body Then the cells axon passes the message along to other neurons muscles or glands axons are sometimes longa layer of fatty acid called the Myelin sheath insulates the axons of some neurons and helps speed up their impulses Myelin sheath degenerating Multiple Sclerosis Neurons transmit messages when stimulated by signals from our senses or when triggered by chemical signals from neighboring neurons and at such times neuron fires an impulse called the action potential a brief electrical charge that travels down its axonGenerate electricity from chemical events the chemistrytoelectricity process involves the exchange of ions electrically charged atomsinterior fluid of a resting axonnegatively charged ions fluid outside the axon positively charged ions Positive outsidenegative insidethe resting potential Axons surface is very selective about what it allows in selectively permeable
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