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Chapter 2

PSY 1101 Chapter 2 Terms.docx

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PSY 1101 Chapter 2 TermsBiological Psychology Branch of psych concerned with the links between biology and behaviour behavioural neuroscientists neuropsychologists behaviour geneticists physiological psychologists or bypsychologistsNeuron a nerve cell the basic building block of the nervous systemSensory neurons Neurons that carry incoming info from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cordMotor Neurons Neurons that carry outgoing info from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glandsInterneurons neurons within the brain and spinal cord that communicate internally and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputsDendrite The bushy branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell bodyAxon The extension of a neuron ending in branching terminal fibers through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glandsMyelin Sheath A layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibres of many neurons enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulse as the impulse hops from one node to the nextThreshold level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulseSynapse the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuronThe tiny gap at this junction is called the synaptic gap or synaptic cleftNeurotransmitters Chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neuronsWhen released by the sending neuron neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulseReuptake a neurotransmitters reabsorption by the sending neuronEndorphins morphine within natural opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and pleasureAntagonists block receptor sites similar enough to mimic neurotransmitter not similar enough to stimulate the receptor example of molecule that inhibitsNervous System The bodys speedy electrochemical communication network consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systemsCentral Nervous System CNS the brain and spinal cord
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