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Chapter 1

Chapter 1 - thinking Critically with Psychological Science.docx

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Chapter 1Thinking Critically with Psychological ScienceHindsight BiasHindsight biasthe tendency to believe after learning an outcome that one would have foreseen it Aka Iknewitallalong phenomenonPresent Out of sight out of mind and Absence makes the heart grow fonder to 2 separate groups of peopleoBoth will regard this as unsurprisingly truecommon senseproblemoDoesnt mean common sensewrong but common sense describes what has happened not what will happenGood idea are like good inventions once created they seem obviousOverconfidenceWe tend to think we know more than we dooverconfidence Hindsight and overconfidence lead us to overestimate our intuitionThe Scientific AttitudeCuriosity to exploreunderstand wout being mislead underlay scienceWideas ie ESP the proof is in the puddingdoes it workoMoses used thisapproach empirical approach oPut the prophet to the test If the predicted event does not take place then so much worse for the propheto let the facts speak for themselvesTo go from fantasyreality you must be skeptical not cynical open not gullibleTo believe with certainty we must begin by doubtingoWhat do you meanoHow do you knowAlso need humility not opinions that matter but the truth Science possible due to the following attitudes curiosity skepticism and humility Critical ThinkingCritical thinking examine assumptions discerns hidden values evaluates evidence and assesses conclusionsThe Scientific MethodTheoryexplanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviorseventsHypothesistestable prediction often implied by a theoryoGive direction to research oWhat results would supportdisconfirm the theoryoIn testing our theory we may see what we expectbias subjective observationso The urge to see what we expect is an everpresent temptation inout of labOperational definitionsstatement of the proceduresoperations used to define research variablesoEx Generosity operationally defined as money contributed
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