Textbook Notes (368,566)
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Psychology (1,066)
PSY1101 (252)
A L L (30)
Chapter 2

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY1101
Professor
A L L
Semester
Fall

Description
the fluid interior of a resting axon has an excess of Experimental Psychologynegatively charged ions and the outside has more Chapter 2 Neuroscience and positively charged ions This state is called the resting Behaviourpotential The axons surface is selectively permeableEverything psychological is simultaneously biologicalWhen an axon is fired sodium ions can flow through Plato correctly located the mind in the spherical headIn the refractory period the sodium ions are pumpedhis idea of the perfect formback outAristotle believed the mind was in the heart which Neurons can receive both excitatory accelerator pumps warmth and vitality to the bodyand inhibitory brake signalsFranz Gall invented phrenology a theory that Threshold the level of stimulation required to trigger claimed bumps on the skull could reveal our mental a neural impulseabilities and our characteristic traitsexcitatory inhibitory signals exceeds a minimum Focused attention on the idea that various brain intensity This causes the action potentialregions have particular functionsNeuron has all or none responsiveness By The body is composed of cells Nerve cells conduct increasing the stimulation one does not increase the electricity and talk to one another by sending action potentialchemical messages across a gap that separates them Biological psychology a branch of psychology concerned with the links between biology and behaviour Some biological psychologists call themselves behavioural neuroscientists behaviour geneticists physiological psychologists or biopsychologistsNeural Communicationthe bodys information system is composed of billions of interconnected cells called neuronsWe are biologpsychosocialsystemsNeuronsNeurons a nerve cell the basic building block of the nervous systemEach consists of a cell body and its branching How Neurons CommunicatefibresSantiago Ramon y Cajap described gaps between Partsof the neuronindividual nerve cells and concluded that the individual a dendrite the bushy branching extensions of a neurons must function as independent agents within neuron that receives messages and conduct impulses the nervous systemtoward the cell bodySir Charles Sherrington noticed that neural impulses Shortwere taking an unexpectedly long time to travel a b axon the extensions of a neuron ending in neural pathwaybranching terminal fibers through which messages Synapse the junction between the axon tip of the pass to other neurons or to muscles or glandssending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the sometimes very long several feetreceiving neuron The tiny gap at this junction is called Motor neurons control musclesthe synaptic gap or cleftc myelin sheath a layer of fatty tissue segmentally Less than a millionth of an inch wideencasing the fibers of many neurons enables vastly neurotransmitters chemical messages that traverse greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the the synaptic gaps between neurons impulse hops from one note to the nextWhen released by the sending neuronMultiple sclerosis is when the myelin sheath neurotransmitters travel across thedegeneratessynapse and bind to the receptor sites on thespeeds vary between 2 200 mileshour receivingneuron thereby influencing whether that action potential a neural impulse a brief electrical neuron will generate a neural impulsethcharge that travels down an axon The action Within 110000 of a second the neurotransmitter potential is generated by the movement of positively molecules cross the synaptic gap and bind to receptor charged atoms in and out of chemical channels in the sites on the receiving neuron axons membranestimulated by heat pressure and light
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