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Psychology (1,036)
PSY1101 (252)
Chapter 2

Chapter 2 - The Biology of Mind

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University of Ottawa
Najwa Haddad

Chapter 2The Biology of MindI The Nervous SystemFunction and Structure Central nervous system consists of Brain and spinal cordPeripheral System the whole bodyThey both have different functions but they work together to make an intergraded systemCommunication networkThey receive info about information about the environment from the sensesOrganizes and integrates informationUses this information to send out messages to muscles and glands thereby creating behaviours an controlling movementsConscious experienceII Neurons A Basic functions and structure of neuronsNeurons are the basic unit there are thousands of different neurons3 major types 1 Sensory Neurons they receive sensory information from the senses eyes transmit this info to the central nervous systems is nerves Millions 2 Interneurons only found in the central nervous system most complex job of all neurons They carry messages between neurons and they organize and intergrade information received Billions 3 Motor Neurons take the message from the central nervous system and carry them via nerves to muscles and glands MillionsBasic Structure of NeuronsCome in a variety of shapes and sizes They share more or less the same basic structureCell body soma middley in the soma we find the DNA y function to manufacture what the neuron needs to survive and growDendrites little arms y Thin tube like structures that branch out from the soma to increase the surface area of the some and to receive information from other neuronsAxon thin tube like structure y Function to carry the action potential electrical impulses and to carry it to all the axon branchesy Terminal Buttons are little knobs at the end of the axon branchesMyelin Sheath some axons are covered in a Myelin sheathy Its a fatty like substance that covers the axony It provides insulation and it speeds up the electrical transmissions y Axons with Myelin Sheaths work 20x fasterSynapse place where neurons meet to communicateSynaptic cleft or Synaptic gap gap between 2 neurons at the synapse small distancePresynaptic Neuron neuron that is sending a message to another neuronPostsynaptic Neuron neuron that is receiving a message from another neuronB Communication B1 Communications within a neuronBrain 80 waterWater inside the cells intracellular fluidWater outside the cells extracellular fluidMore like sea waterWater has dissolved chemicals including y Sodium ions Na y Chloride ions Cr y Potassium ions K y Protein ions A y Protein ions are only found inside the cellYellow inside and outside the cellMembrane of the neuron is porous means that the ions can move in and outside of the cell however even though it is porous the membrane is selectively permeable which means ions do not move freely they can move in and out but they cannot move freely Sometimes the membrane will allow ions to cross sometimes the membrane wontWhen a neuron is at rest it means it is not firing
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