Psychology Chapter 3 Key Terms
Consciousness – Our awareness of ourselves and our environment.
Cognitive neuroscience – the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including
perception, thinking, memory, and language).
Dual Processing – the principle that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and
Blind sight – a condition in which a person can respond to a visual stimulus without consciously experiencing
Selective Attention – The focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus.
Inattentional blindness – failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere.
Change Blindness – failing to notice changes in the environment.
Circadian Rhythm – the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms (for example, of temperature and
wakefulness) that occur on a 24hour cycle.
REM sleep – Rapid eye movement sleep, a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur.
Also known as paradoxical sleep, because the muscles are relaxed (except for minor twitches) but other body
systems are active.
Alpha waves – the relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state.
Sleep – Periodic, natural, reversible, loss of consciousness – as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a
coma, general anesthesia, or hibernation.
Hallucinations – false sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual
Delta waves – the large, slow brain wave associated with deep sleep.
Insomnia – a recurring problem in falling or staying asleep.
Narcolepsy – a sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into
REM sleep, often at inopportune times.
Sleep apnea – a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated
Night terrors – a sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified unlike
nightmares, night terrors occur during NREM3 sleep, within 2 or 3 hours of falling asleep, and are seldom
Dream – a sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person’s mind. Dreams are
discontinuities, and incongruities, and for the dreamer’s delusional acceptance of the content and later
difficulties remembering it. Manifest content – according to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream (as distinct from its latent, or
Latent Content – According to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream (as distinct from its manifest
REM rebound – the tendency for REM sleep to increase the following REM sleep deprivation (created by
repeated awakenings during REM sleep).
Hypnosis – a social interaction in which one person (the hypnosis) suggests to another (su