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Chapter 4

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Chapter 4Epilepsy debilitating affliction in which seizuresuncontrolled storms of electrical activitybegin in one part of brain and spread through much of it causing violent lifethreatening convulsions to whole body Brains most distinguishing capacity ability to have a sense of consciousnessEgyptians thought mind was in heart Franz Gall and Johann Spurzheimtheory of phrenology based on principal of functional localizationophrenology the practice of assessing personality traits and mental abilities by measuring bumps on the human skullcritic of phrenology Flourensothought brain worked as single unitequipotentiality all parts of the cortex contributed equally to mental abilitiesotoday know that its WRONG Brain is patchwork of highly specialized areas first strong evidence supporting this Brocas areathe left frontal region of the brain that is crucial to the production of languageMind is adaptive one of four major themes of textbookBrains specialized mechanismsregulate breathing food intake sexual behavior and bodily fluids sensory systems some basic roles have changed little over evolution eg breathingSpinal cordruns inside hollows of vertebraefrom just above pelvis to base of skullsegmented each marked by own pair of spinal nervestwo tissue typesogrey matter dominated by cell bodies of neuronsowhite matter mostly axons and myelin sheaths odistinguishable in brain as wellrelays infoalso controlsospinal reflex conversion of sensation to actioneg stretch reflex Thickens into brainstembasic roles breathing swallowing vomiting urination orgasmBecause it is a continuation of spinal cord performs for head similar to what spinal cord does for rest of bodyoComplement of reflexes analogous to spinal reflexes Eg gagginghas nerves connecting to skin and muscles of head and specialized sensory organs of head like eyes and ears Includes reticular formation large network of neurons within brainstem involved in general arousal behavioral sleepwake cyclesCerebellumMeans little brain Lesions to different parts produce different effects BUT cellular organization identicaloSuggests producing identical operations on all inputs but effects differ depending on origin destination of infoMOTOR FUNCTIONoDamage to little nodes at bottom head tilt balance problems loss of smooth eye position for movement of headoDamage to ridge up back affects walkingoDamage to bulging lobes on either side loss of limb coordination MOTOR LEARNINGoTrained by rest of nervous system operates independently and unconsciouslyEg riding bike without thinking about itFUNCTIONAL IMAGINGoCognitive processesoMaking plans remembering events using language emotionEmpathy disorders of cerebellumosymptoms of ataxia clumsiness loss of motor coordination oAlso showed lack of normal emotional responses impaired cognitionABOVE cerebellum and brain stem isForebraintwo cerebral hemispheresocerebral cortexosubcortical regions hypothalamusthalamushippocampusamygdalebasal gangliamany of these part of limbic systemseparating the evolutionary order brainstem cerebellum and new cerebral cortexinclude basic drives eating drinking emotions
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