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Chapter 5

Chapter 5 Review Class 3.docx

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Christine Mountney

CHAPTER 5 REVIEW Developing Through the Life SpanPrenatal Development and the Newborn 1 How does life develop before birthDevelopmental psychologists study physical mental and social changes throughout the life span The life cycle begins at conception when one sperm cell unites with an egg to form a zygote Attached to the uterine wall the developing embryos body organs begin to form and function By 9 weeks the fetus is recognizably human Teratogens are potentially harmful agents that can pass through the placental screen and harm the developing embryo or fetus as happens with fetal alcohol syndrome2 What are some newborn abilities and how do researchers explore infants mental abilitiesNewborns are born with sensory equipment and reflexes that facilitate their survival and their social interactions with adults For example they quickly learn to discriminate their mothers smell and sound Researchers use techniques that test habituation such as the noveltypreference procedure to explore infants abilitiesInfancy and Childhood 3 During infancy and childhood how do the brain and motor skills developThe brains nerve cells are sculpted by heredity and experience their interconnections multiply rapidly after birth Our complex motor skillssitting standing and walkingdevelop in a predictable sequence whose timing is a function of individual maturation and culture We lose conscious memories of experiences from before about age 312 in part because major areas of the brain have not yet matured4 From the perspective of Piaget and of todays researchers how does a childs mind developPiaget proposed that through assimilation and accommodation children actively construct and modify their understanding of the world They form schemas that help them organize their experiences Progressing from the simplicity of the sensorimotor stage of the first two years in which they develop object permanence children move to more complex ways of thinking In the preoperational stage they develop a theory of mind absent in children with autism but they are egocentric and unable to perform simple logical operations At about age 6 or 7 they enter the concrete operational stage and can perform concrete operations such as those required to comprehend the principle of conservation By about age 12 children enter the formal operational stage and can reason systematically Research supports the sequence Piaget proposed for the unfolding of human cognition but it also shows that young children are more capable and their development more continuous than he believed5 How do parentinfant attachment bonds formAt about 8 months infants separated from their caregivers display stranger anxiety Infants form attachments not simply because parents gratify biological needs but more important because they are comfortable familiar and responsive Ducks and other animals have a more rigid attachment process called imprinting that occurs during a critical period Neglect or abuse can disrupt the attachment process Infants differing attachment styles reflect both their individual temperament and the responsiveness of
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