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Chapter 13

Chapter 13 Review Class 7.docx

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Christine Mountney

CHAPTER 13 REVIEW PersonalityThe Psychoanalytic Perspective 1 What were Freuds views of personality and its developmentSigmund Freuds treatment of emotional disorders led him to believe that they spring from unconscious dynamics which he sought to analyze through free associations and dreams He referred to his theory and techniques as psychoanalysis He saw personality as composed of pleasureseeking psychic impulses the id a realityoriented executive the ego and an internalized set of ideals the superego He believed that children develop through psychosexual stages and that our personalities are influenced by how we have resolved conflicts associated with these stages and whether we have remained fixated at any stage2 How did Freud think people defended themselves against anxietyTensions between the demands of id and superego cause anxiety The ego copes by using defense mechanisms especially repression3 Which of Freuds ideas did his followers accept or rejectNeoFreudians Alfred Adler Karen Horney and Carl Jung accepted many of Freuds ideas But Adler and Horney argued that we have motives other than sex and aggression and that the egos conscious control is greater than Freud supposed and Jung proposed a collective unconscious Psychodynamic theorists share Freuds view that unconscious mental processes inner conflicts and childhood experiences are important influences on personality4 What are projective tests and how are they usedProjective tests attempt to assess personality by presenting ambiguous stimuli designed to reveal the unconscious Although projective tests such as the Rorschach inkblots have questionable reliability and validity many clinicians continue to use them5 How do contemporary psychologists view Freud and the unconsciousTodays research psychologists note that Freuds theory offers only afterthefact explanations and that repression rarely occurs Current informationprocessing research confirms that our access to all that goes on in our mind is very limited but it does not support Freuds view of the unconscious Rather the unconscious consists of schemas that control our perceptions priming parallel processing that occurs without our conscious knowledge implicit memories of learned skills instantly activated emotions and selfconcepts and stereotypes that filter information about ourselves and others There is also little support for the idea of defense mechanisms Psychologys false consensus effect the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors does however bear a resemblance to Freuds projection and reaction formation also seems to happen Nevertheless Freud drew psychologys attention to the unconscious to the struggle to cope with anxiety and sexuality and to the conflict
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