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Chapter 14

Chapter 14 Review Class 8.docx

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Christine Mountney

CHAPTER R EVIEW Psychological DisordersPerspectives on Psychological Disorders 1 How should we draw the line between normality and disorderPsychologists and psychiatrists consider behavior disordered when it is deviant distressful and dysfunctional The definition of deviant varies with context and culture It also varies with time for example some children who might have been judged rambunctious a few decades ago now are being diagnosed with attentiondeficit hyperactivity disorder2 What perspectives can help us understand psychological disordersThe medical model assumes that psychological disorders are mental illnesses that can be diagnosed on the basis of their symptoms and cured through therapy sometimes in a hospital The bio psychosocial perspective assumes that disordered behavior like other behavior arises from genetic predispositions and physiological states inner psychological dynamics and social cultural circumstances3 How and why do clinicians classify psychological disordersThe fourth edition text revised of the American Psychiatric Associations Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSMIVTR provides diagnostic labels and descriptions that aid mental health professionals by providing a common language and shared concepts for communications and research Most US health insurance organizations require DSMIV diagnoses before they will pay for therapy4 Why do some psychologists criticize the use of diagnostic labelsLabels can create preconceptions that unfairly stigmatize people and can bias our perceptions of their past and present behavior One label insanityused in some legal defenses raises moral and ethical questions about how a society should treat people who have disorders and have committed crimesAnxiety Disorders 5 What are anxiety disorders and how do they differ from ordinary worries and fears Anxiety is classified as a psychological disorder only when it becomes distressing or persistent or is characterized by maladaptive behaviors intended to reduce it People with generalized anxiety disorder feel persistently and uncontrollably tense and apprehensive for no apparent reason In the more extreme panic disorder anxiety escalates into periodic episodes of intense dread Those with a phobia may be irrationally afraid of a specific object or situation Persistent and repetitive thoughts obsessions and actions compulsions characterize obsessivecompulsive disorder Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder include four or more weeks of haunting memories nightmares social withdrawal jumpy anxiety and sleep problems following some traumatic and uncontrollable event
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