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Chapter 15

Chapter 15 Review Class 9.docx

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Christine Mountney

The Psychological TherapiesPsychotherapy consists of interactions between a trained therapist and someone seeking to overcome psychological difficulties or achieve personal growth The major psychotherapies derive from the psychoanalytic humanistic behavioral and cognitive perspectives on psychology Today many therapists combine aspects of these perspectives in an eclectic approach or psychotherapy integration sometimes in a group setting1 What are the aims and methods of psychoanalysis and how have they been adapted in psychodynamic therapyThrough psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud and his students aimed to help people gain insight into the unconscious origins of their disorders to work through the accompanying feelings and to take responsibility for their own growth Techniques included free association dream analysis and interpretation of resistances and transference to the therapist of longrepressed feelings Contemporary psychodynamic therapy has been influenced by traditional psychoanalysis but is briefer and less expensive It focuses on a patients current conflicts and defenses by searching for themes common to many past and present important relationships Interpersonal therapy a brief 12 to 16session form of psychodynamic therapy deals primarily with current symptoms such as depression rather than the origins of unconscious conflicts2 What are the basic themes of humanistic therapy such as Rogers clientcentered approachHumanistic therapists have focused on clients current conscious feelings and on their taking responsibility for their own growth Carl Rogers clientcentered therapy proposed that therapists most important contributions are to function as a psychological mirror through active listening and to provide a growthfostering environment of unconditional positive regard characterized by genuineness acceptance and empathy The humanistic and psychoanalytic therapies are known as insight therapies3 What are the assumptions and techniques of the behavior therapiesBehavior therapists do not attempt to explain the origin of problems or to promote selfawareness Instead they attempt to modify the problem behaviors themselves Thus they may counter condition behaviors through exposure therapies such as systematic desensitization virtual reality exposure therapy or aversive conditioning Or they may apply operant conditioning principles with behavior modification techniques such as token economies4 What are the goals and techniques of the cognitive therapiesThe cognitive therapies such as Aaron Becks cognitive therapy for depression aim to change selfdefeating thinking by training people to look at themselves in new more positive ways The widely researched and practiced cognitivebehavior therapy also helps clients to regularly practice new ways of thinking and talking
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