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Review- Child psych.docx

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University of Ottawa
Caroline Sullivan

Chapter 1 Background and TheoriesWhat is developmental psychology11Understand the philosophical and historical roots of child psychologyChild psych as a science is only a little more than 100 years oldPsych is the scientific study of behavior Developmental psych the branch of psych devoted to the study of changes in behavior and ability over the course of developmentTwo basic goals of developmental psych aDescription to identify the childrens behavior at each point in their developmentbExplanation determining the causes and processes that produce changes in the behavior from one point to the nextDevelopmental psych study behavior changes at all phases of the life cycleWhy study Children1Period of Rapid Development In humans changes involving physical growth social interactions acquisition of language memory abilities and virtually all other areas of development are greatest during childhood2Long Term influences events and experiences of the early years strongly affect an individuals later development3Insight into complex processes study our language system as it is being acquired thus in language development as well as in many other areas the growing child is a showcase of developing skill abilities and researchers interested in different aspects of human development haven taken advantage of this fact to help them understand adult behavior4Real World Applications developmental psychsnoften conduct their research in laboratory settings where they investigate theoretical questions regarding basic psychological processesaLegislators and other policy makers often turn to psychologists to provide them with usable knowledgeregarding the effects of these problems on children and the possible ways to treat them5Interesting subject matterhuman child is intruiging and wondorous creatureHistorical views of ChildhoodSpecial attention care and protection Educating children relatively recent development in Western cultureAncient Greece and RomeGreek thinkers such as Plato and Aristotle wrote the importance of education they also defended practices that today would seem unthinkableInfanticide the killing of newborns was routine and viewed as an appropriate way to deal with babies who were illegitimate unhealthy or simply unwantedSever punishment and exploitation of children were neither uncommon nor conisdred cruelThe ancient romans for example bought and sold children for various purposes including domestic work and service in brothelsNot display the caring and protective attitutdes that exsist towards children todayMedival and Renaissance PeriodsFollowing the collapse of the Roman Empire the Catholic church attempted to improve the lives of children by promoting their image as pure and innocent Strong stand against infanticide offered parents of unwanted children the alternative of shipping them away to conventsChurch did provide simple reading and writing instruction to children involved in religious studiesHowever abuse and exploitation of children remained commonplace throughout the middle agesFlorence Italy charitable institutions known as foundling homes were set up by healthy individuals for children who were sick unwanted or lostBelief that society had some respobility for the care and protection of the youngsters So the study of human development was primarily the concern of philosophers and religious scholarsthChild pscyh beginning of 20 CentruyJohn Locke 16321704A physician and a leading political figure of the timeAll children are created equal and the mind of the newborn is like a tabula rasaAll knowledge comes to the child through experience and learning Children are therefore neither innately good or bad they are products of their environment and upbriningEnvironmentalist point of view also means that any child is theoretically cpable of becoming anythingAdvice to parents on the best methods of child rearing Stressed the use of rewards and punishments no material awards or physical punishmentShould involve praise for appropriate behaviours and acolding for innaprriate oneStimulate children to begin learning at a very early stageJean Jacques Rousseau 17121778Leading philosopher of his dayFather of French romanticism a movment that emphasized themes of sentimentality naturalness and innocenceChapter 2 Research MethodsScientific Research21UnderstandhowresearchersusethescientificmethodtostudychilddevelopmentScientificMethodthesystemofrulesusedbyscientiststoconductandevaluatetheirresearchTheRoleofTheoryTheoryabroadsetofstatementsdescribingtherelationbetweenaphenomenonandthefactorsassumedtoaffectitLawprincipleapredictedrelationbetweenaphenomenonandafactorassumedtoaffectitthatissupportedbyagooddealofscientificevidence
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