SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY – CHAPTER 8 SUMMARY
Interdependent Relationships w/ Family and Friends versus Loneliness
- Interdependence (two people who influence each other, share thoughts + emotions, do things together)
characterize close relationships.
- Evolutionary theory suggests emotional bonding w/ others = higher chances at natural selection. Because of
this, present-day humans/primates are hard-wired to seek emotional closeness.
- Attachment-styles (Interpersonal trust + self-esteem) are attained through family/upbringing. Based on
interaction between the caregiver and the child. Children learn what to expect/how to interact via interaction
S ECURE ATTACHMENT -STYLE: High self-esteem, high interpersonal trust. Most desired/successful.
F EARFUL AVOIDANT ATTACHMENT STYLE : Low self-esteem, low interpersonal trust. Least adaptive,
P REOCCUPIED ATTACHMENT STYLE : Low self-esteem, high interpersonal trust.Abit insecure, wants
close relationships, but feels unworthy – thus vulnerable to rejection.
D ISMISSING ATTACHMENT STYLE : High self-esteem, low interpersonal trust.Abit insecure, feels like
the deserve a close relationship, but frustrated due to mistrust of potential partners. Tendency to
reject the other person to avoid being rejected.
- In first friendships, common interests + other sources of (+) affect = attraction. W/ maturity, this can become
a close relationship – entails time together, mutual social support engaging in self-disclosure.
- Loneliness is when someone has fewer and less satisfying relationships than they desire. This results in
depression/anxiety. Helpful ‘treatment’ in cognitive therapy/social skills training.
D ISPOSITIONAL LONELINESS : the combo of genetics + insecure attachment style. Usually, this is due
to bad relations with the caregiver/lack of early social exp.
S ITUATIONAL LONELINESS : caused by external factors (ie. moving or social rejection) Unrelated to
Romantic Relationships and Falling in Love
- Physical intimacy (anything from holding hands to sex) is a defining characteristic of romantic relationships.
- Like friendship and attraction, romantic attraction is influenced by: physical proximity, appearance, and
similarity. This, + sexual attraction, desire for total acceptance, and positive fantasies (seeing partner as
ideal, predicting long-lasting relationship) – viewing the relationship through ‘rose-coloured glasses’.
- Ancestral reproductive success – male attraction to young,