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Canada (161,617)
Psychology (1,063)
PSY2110 (40)


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Mary Theresa Howard

SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY – CHAPTER 8 SUMMARY Interdependent Relationships w/ Family and Friends versus Loneliness - Interdependence (two people who influence each other, share thoughts + emotions, do things together) characterize close relationships. - Evolutionary theory suggests emotional bonding w/ others = higher chances at natural selection. Because of this, present-day humans/primates are hard-wired to seek emotional closeness. - Attachment-styles (Interpersonal trust + self-esteem) are attained through family/upbringing. Based on interaction between the caregiver and the child. Children learn what to expect/how to interact via interaction w/ family.  S ECURE ATTACHMENT -STYLE: High self-esteem, high interpersonal trust. Most desired/successful.  F EARFUL AVOIDANT ATTACHMENT STYLE : Low self-esteem, low interpersonal trust. Least adaptive, most insecure.  P REOCCUPIED ATTACHMENT STYLE : Low self-esteem, high interpersonal trust.Abit insecure, wants close relationships, but feels unworthy – thus vulnerable to rejection.  D ISMISSING ATTACHMENT STYLE : High self-esteem, low interpersonal trust.Abit insecure, feels like the deserve a close relationship, but frustrated due to mistrust of potential partners. Tendency to reject the other person to avoid being rejected. - In first friendships, common interests + other sources of (+) affect = attraction. W/ maturity, this can become a close relationship – entails time together, mutual social support engaging in self-disclosure. - Loneliness is when someone has fewer and less satisfying relationships than they desire. This results in depression/anxiety. Helpful ‘treatment’ in cognitive therapy/social skills training.  D ISPOSITIONAL LONELINESS : the combo of genetics + insecure attachment style. Usually, this is due to bad relations with the caregiver/lack of early social exp.  S ITUATIONAL LONELINESS : caused by external factors (ie. moving or social rejection) Unrelated to person’s behaviour. Romantic Relationships and Falling in Love - Physical intimacy (anything from holding hands to sex) is a defining characteristic of romantic relationships. - Like friendship and attraction, romantic attraction is influenced by: physical proximity, appearance, and similarity. This, + sexual attraction, desire for total acceptance, and positive fantasies (seeing partner as ideal, predicting long-lasting relationship) – viewing the relationship through ‘rose-coloured glasses’. - Ancestral reproductive success – male attraction to young,
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