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PSY2110 (40)


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Mary Theresa Howard

SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY – CHAPTER 10 SUMMARY Responding to an Emergency: Will Bystanders Help? - In the case of an emergency, bystanders may or may not respond in a prosocial (helpful action that benefits others without necessarily benefiting the person performing the act, and may involve a risk for them) manner. (Heroism to apathy) - Partially due to diffusion of responsibility (idea that responsibility of doing something is spread amongst all the bystanders). The bystander effect (time/help in emergency effected by number of bystanders present). Implicit bystander effect - the more bystanders, the less likely help will be administered/the longer it will take. - Whether or not the bystander helps depends on five steps:  1. Bystander must be paying attention/be aware of unusual event.  2. Situation must be interpreted as an emergency. Pluralistic ignorance (assuming that whatever is going on is normal, as opposed to there being something wrong) can impede this.  3. Must assume responsibility to help.  4. Have the required skills and knowledge to act.  5. Decide to act on this. Social exchange theory (interactions between individuals, where one aims to max rewards, min costs) might affect this. External and Internal Influences On Helping Behaviour - (+) and (-) emotional states – enhance or inhibit prosocial behaviour, depends on specific factors of situation/nature of assistance needed. - Men tend to help in more heroic, chivalrous ways, women then to help more in nurturing, caring, committed ways. - People are more likely to help those within the in-group than those of an out-group. In collectivist cultures, this is more elevated than in individualistic groups. - Individual differences are based on empathy (complex response, with both affect
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