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Psychology (1,060)
PSY2110 (40)
Chapter 1-2


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Mary Theresa Howard

CONDENSED NOTES – SOCIAL PSYCH (CHAPTER 1-2) Correlation (+) – As one variable goes up, the other goes up as well. (-) –As one variable goes up, the other variable goes down. (Inverse Relation) SOCIAL COGNITION - Manner in which we interpret, analyse, remember, & use information about the social world.  It isn’t always rational, often influenced by emotions.  To not display emotion, must be trained.  This is the “professional mask”. - How we process info:  Schemas  Heuristics  Errors  Affect Schemas - “Filing system” - Mental frameworks centering on specific theme(s). - Influences 3 processes:  Attention – Information we notice.  Helps filter • If information matches a schema, it is processed there. • If no matching schema, new schema is created.  Encoding – Information stored in memory.  If information is consistent – encoded.  If information sharply different, encode in separate category “tag”.  Retrieval – Recovery of information  Can be quick, or take more time.  Pulled from memory. - Stronger when cognitive load increases. - Helps process more quickly/easily. - Perserveration effect: beliefs/schemas don’t want to change.  Hard to break habits.  Stereotyping. - Self-fulfilling prophecy: bias in regard to attention/treatment.  Ex. Teachers lead to believe students would ‘bloom’academically, students end up doing better in school because of this. - Information overload: information input exceeds ability to process.  Multitasking is easier when younger, rote activities easier, less strenuous. Heuristics - “House Rules” - Simple rules made unconsciously to deal with large loads of info and aid in decision making.  Representative heuristic:  Strategy for making judgement based on similarity of stimuli a compared to stimuli b.  Availability heuristic:  Easier to bring up information if done in the past. • Similar to consequence stereotype.  Can lead to overestimating. • Ex. Words that start and end with letter “K” or words with “K” as third letter? –Assumed answer is former, answer is latter.  Can lead to priming/stereotyping. • Priming: Memory of specific event/moment that makes us more aware of similar memories. o Eg. Watching a scary movie, becoming more easily frightened as a result.  Anchoring/Adjustment heuristic:  Pre-determined starting point, adjusting to it after the fact.  The start point is not necessarily correct. Automatic Processing - After intensive process/experience with task-type information done enough times, it becomes automatic
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