Textbook Notes (363,135)
Canada (158,215)
Psychology (1,036)
PSY2114 (86)
Chapter 5

Chapter 5.docx

17 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Ottawa
Gustavo Gottret

-know figure 5.7 Chapter 5 Physical and Cognitive Development in Infancy Physical Growth -physical developments tend to follow 2 patterns: 1) Cephalocaudal Pattern -the sequence in which the greatest growth in size, weight, and feature differentiation gradually works down from top to bottom -this same pattern occurs in the head area -the top parts of the head (the eyes and brain) grow faster than the lower parts like the jaw 2) Proximodistal Pattern -the sequence in which growth starts at the centre of the body and moves toward the extremities -e.g.: the early maturation of muscular control of the trunk and arms, as compared with that of the hands and fingers The Brain -extensive brain development continues after birth, through infancy and later -because the brain is developing so rapidly in infancy, the head should be protected from falls or other injuries and the baby should never be shaken -shaken baby syndrome involves brain swelling and hemorrhaging Brain Development -the brain's areas do not mature uniformly -primary motor areas develop earlier than areas such as the primary sensory areas -a neuron is a nerve cell that handles information processing at the cellular levels -made up of the cell body, dendrites, and an axon -dendrites extend from the cell body and receive information from other neurons and carry the information into the cell body -the axon carries the signal from the cell body to the next neuron via the terminal button -neurotransmitters are released between the terminal button on the axon to a dendrite of another neuron -a myelin sheath is a layer of fat cells that encases most axons -it helps nerve impulses travel faster -myelination of visual pathways occurs rapidly after birth and is completed in the first 6 months -myelination of auditory pathways is not completed until 4 or 5 years of age -nearly twice as many synaptic connections are made as will ever be used -the connections that are used become strengthened -unused connections are replaced by other pathways or disappear -these connections are "pruned" Mapping the Brain -we are most concerned with the portion of the brain farthest from the spinal cord, known as the forebrain -includes the cerebral cortex -the cerebral cortex covers the forebrain -it is made up of 2 hemispheres -there are 4 main areas (lobes) in each hemisphere 1) Frontal Lobes -involved in voluntary movement, thinking, personality, and intentionality or purpose 2) Occipital Lobes -function vision 3) Temporal Lobes -active role in hearing, language processing, and memory 4) Parietal Lobes -involved in registering spatial location, attention, and motor control -lateralization involves the specialization of function in one hemisphere of the cerebral cortex Early Experience and the Brain -children who grow up in a deprived environment may have depressed brain activity -the infant's brain depends on experiences to determine how connections are made -before birth, genes mainly direct basic writing, where neurons grow and travel to distant places to await for further instruction -after birth, the inflowing streams of sight, sound, touches, language, and eye contact help shape the brain's neural connections -experience helps to rewire the brain (in the case of Michael Rehbein who had his left hemisphere removed) Sleep -newborns sleep 16-17 hours a day -by 4 months of age, they are closer to adult-like sleep patterns -cultural variations in infant sleeping patterns exist -the Kipsigis culture in Kenya has babies that rarely sleep longer than 3 hours at a stretch -half of an infant's sleep is REM sleep and infants begin their sleep cycle with REM sleep, in contrast to adults who spend about 1/5 of the night in REM sleep, which appears 1 hour after non-REM sleep -REM sleep is a recurring sleep stage during which vivid drams commonly occur -when infants reach 3 months of age, their REM sleep falls to 40% and REM sleep doesn't begin their sleep cycle -the large amount of REM may provide infants with added self-stimulation since they spend less time awake and this might promote the brain's development -there is much variation across cultures in the newborn's sleeping arrangements -i.e.: children may share a bed with the mother or sleep in a crib, either in the same or separate room as their parents -shared sleeping may promote breastfeeding, allow for a quicker response to the baby's cries, and detecting breathing pauses in the baby that might be dangerous SIDS -known as Sudden Infant Death Syndrome -is a condition that occurs when an infant stops breathing, usually during the night, and suddenly dies without apparent cause -it is the leading cause of death in infants between birth and 12 months of age -boys are more likely to experience this compared to girls -more common in First Nations and Inuit populations -Risk Factors include; -low-birth weight infants -subsequent siblings of an infant who has died of SIDS -infants who are passively exposed to cigarette smoke -infants with sleep apnea -lower socio-economic groups -to reduce the risk of SIDS, the infant should be placed on their back, have a smoke-free environment, and should not be placed on soft chairs, sofas, waterbeds, or cushions; firm bedding is best with light blankets Nutritional Needs -fat is important to an infant's health -children in Canada are at risk for vitamin D deficiency due to the long winters and the lessened exposure to sun -vitamin D supplements or vitamin D fortified formulas are recommended -iron deficiency is also common -anemia may occur (reduction in the blood's ability to carry oxygen) -iron-fortified foods are recommended -breastfed children should have iron-rich supplements in their diets Breastfeeding -breastfeeding reduces the risk of obesity -breastfeeding is better for the baby's and the mother's health -breastfeeding is recommended for at least the first 6 months of life; it is optimal to continue breastfeeding through age 2 and beyond -benefits include: -fewer GI infections -lower respiratory infections -no evidence of reduction in allergies -protects against wheezing -less likely to develop middle ear infections -less likely to have chronic inflammation of the skin -less likely to be overweight or obese -less likely to develop type I diabetes in childhood and type II diabetes in adulthood -less likely to experience SIDS -benefits for the mother include: -lower incidence of breast cancer -lower incidence of ovarian cancer -reduction in risk of type II diabetes -a mother should not breastfeed if: -she is infected with HIV or some other infectious disease that can be transmitted through milk -if she has active tuberculosis -if she is taking any drug that may not be safe for the infant -if she has physical difficulties -there are no psychological differences between breast-fed and bottle-fed infants -recommended to introduce solid foods at 6 months of age Malnutrition in Infancy 1) Marasmus -a wasting away of body tissues in the infant's first year, cause by a severe protein-calorie deficiency -infant becomes underweight and has muscle atrophy 2) Kwashiorkor -caused by protein deficiency -the child's abdomen and feet swell with water -causes children's vital organs to collect the nutrients that are present and deprive other parts of the body of them -main causes of these 2 conditions are the early weaning from breast milk to inadequate nutrients (i.e.: unsuitable / unsanitary cow's milk formula) -malnutrition causes difficulties in development -well nourished children are more active, more involved, more helpful with their peers, less anxious, and happier than undernourished children -children in the lowest socio-economic groups benefitted more than the children in higher socio- economic groups in terms of cognitive development and nutrition Motor Development Dynamic Systems Theory -infants assemble motor skills for perceiving and acting -"assembly" refers to the coordination or convergence of a number of factors such as development of the nervous system, the body's physical properties and movement possibilities, the goal of the infant is motivated to reach, the environmental support for the skill etc. -perception and action work together in the infant's mastery of a skill -infants modify their movement patterns to fit a new task by exploring and selecting various configurations; the infant is motivated by challenge which drives the force for change Reflexes -infant has basic reflexes which act as survival mechanisms -e.g.: newborn naturally holds its breath and contracts its throat to keep water out -reflexes are built-in reactions to stimuli; they govern the newborn's movements, which are automatic and beyond the newborn's control 1) Blinking Reflex -stimulated by a flash of light or a puff of air -infant responds by closing both eyes -permanent reflex 2) Babinski Reflex -stimulated when the sole of the foot is stroked -infant responds by fanning out toes and twisting the foot in -disappears after 9 months to 1 year 3) Grasping Reflex -stimulated when palms are touched -infant responds by grasping tightly -weakens after 3 months; disappears after 1 year 4) Moro Reflex -stimulated by a sudden stimulation such as hearing a loud noise or being dropped -infant responds by being startled, arching back, throwing head back flinging out arms and legs, and then rapidly closing them to the centre of the body -disappears after 3 to 4 months 5) Rooting Reflex -stimulated by a cheek stroke or when the side of the mouth is touched -infant responds by turning head, opening mouth, and beginning to suck -disappears after 3-4 months 6) Stepping -stimulated when the infant is held above the surface and the feet are lowered to touch the surface -infant responds by moving the feet as if walking -disappears after 3-4 months 7) Sucking Reflex -stimulated when object is touching mouth -infant responds by automatically sucking -disappears after 3-4 months 8) Swimming Reflex -stimulated when the infant is put face down in water -infant responds by making coordinated swimming movements -disappears after 6-7 months 9) Tonic Neck Reflex -stimulated when the infant is placed on back -infant responds by forming fists with both hands and turning the head to the right -disappears after 2 months Gross Motor Skills -involve large muscle activities, such as moving the arms or walking -these skills require postural control -posture is a dynamic process that is linked with sensory information in the skin, joints, and muscles, as well as vestibular organs in the inner ear that regulate balance and equilibrium in addition to vision and hearing -the sequence of development remains uniform -prone, lift head -prone, chest up, use arms for support -roll over -support some weight with legs -sit without support -stand without support -pulling self to stand -walking using furniture for support -standing alone easily -walking alone easily Fine Motor Skills -involve more finely tuned movements, such as finger dexterity -the development of reaching and grasping becomes more and more refined during the first 2 years Sensory and Perceptual Development Sensation and Perception -sensation occurs when a stimulus reaches sensory receptors (the eyes, ears, tongue, nostrils, and skin) -perception is the interpretation of what is sensed Acuity and Colour -newborns cannot see small things that are far away because the nerves and muscles and lens of the eye are still developing -a newborn's vision is estimated to be 20/240 on the Snellan chart (the newborn can see at 20 feet what a normal adult can see at 240 feet) -by 6 months, vision is 20/40 -the Fantz looking chamber revealted that even 2 to 3-weel old infants prefer to look at patterned displays rather than non-patterned displays -infant's colour vision also improves and by 8 weeks, infants can discriminate colours -experience is necessary for normal colour vision to develop Depth Perception -Gibson and Walk constructed a miniature cliff with a drop-off covered by glass to investigate depth perception -the infants were placed on the edge of the visual cliff and had their mothers coax them to crawl onto the glass -most infants chose to remain on the shallow side, indicating that they could perceive depth Visual Expectations -infants develop expectations about future events in their world -infants were presented with pictures in a regularly alternating sequence or an unpredictable sequence -when the sequence was predictable, the infant would look to the side on which the picture was expected to appear Hearing -fetus' can hear even when they are in the mother's womb (fetus' who were read The Cat in the Hat when they were in the womb preferred it when they were born) -the fetus can recognize the mother's voice; fetal heart rate increased in response to the mother's voice but decreased in response to the stranger's voice -immediately after birth, infants cannot hear soft sounds as well as adults can: a stimulus must be louder to be heard by a newborn than by an adult -newborns can determine the general location where a sound is coming from and become more proficient at localizing sounds (detecting their origins) as they age Touch and Pain -newborns respond to touch and can feel pain -e.g.: newborns cried intensely during circumcision -the newborn can nurse and interact in a normal manner with the mother within several minutes after surgery and can drift into deep sleep which appears to be a coping mechanism Smell -newborns can differentiate odours -young infants who were breastfed showed a preference for smelling their mother's breast pad compared to a clean breast pad when they were 6 days old; they did not show this when they were 2 days old which shows that they required several days of experience to recognize this odour Taste -sensitivity to taste may be present before birth -e.g.: when saccharin was added to amniotic fluid of a near-term fetus, increased swallowing was observed -babies make different facial expressions when they tasted sweet, sour, and bitter solutions Intermodal Perception -the ability to relate and integrate information from 2 or more sensory modalities, such as vision and hearing -early forms of intermodal perception exist in newborns -e.g.: newborns turn their eyes and their head toward the sound of a voice when the sound is maintained for several seconds, but the newborn can localize a sound and look at an object only in a crude way -intermodal perception becomes sharpened with experience -the length of an infant's gaze at 1 of 2 faces presented side-by-side was used as an indicator of them putting language sound and visual information together -the sound they heard was a vowel and the photo of the face was a person making the sound; infants gazed longer at the faces that matched the vowel sounds produced -this suggests that the capacity to connect visual information and sounds in human may be inborn -intermodal skills develop quickly from combining single sounds with the features of a familiar face that accompany the sound to matching spoken statements with the numerous facial features that a stranger's face makes during the production of the sentence -infants can also manage perceptual and motor skills as a unit; infants coordinate their actions and their perceptual expectations -e.g.: they reach for a target object more slowly before performing a precise action than before engaging in a non-precise action Perceptual-Motor Coupling -babies continually coordinate their movements with perceptual information to learn how to maintain balance, reach for objects in space, and move across various surfaces and terrains -action educates perception -e.g.: watching an object while exploring it manually helps infants to discriminate its texture, size, and hardness -perceptual and motor development are coupled Cognitive Developme
More Less

Related notes for PSY2114

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.