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Motivation - Lecture 1, 2 and 3 - September 4, 6, 11 Textbook Notes

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Patrice Karn

Chapter 1 – Introduction to Motivation and Emotion MEANING OF MOTIVATION To be motivated is to be moved into action or thought by either the push of a motive or the pull of an incentive A motive: is a person’s internal disposition that pushes an individual toward some desire end, which is the goal An incentive: the feature of the environment that pulls an individual toward it, attaining an incentive is the goal of a person’s motive. Internal dispositions referred to as motives (desire, want, longing) push individuals toward an end-state Environmental prospects referred to as incentives and goals pull an individual Emotions: push an individual along multiple channels (affect, physiology, behaviour) in order to adapt to the environment - A special case of push motivations that push individuals towards an end-state - End-states also act like goals and pull an individual 3 mechanisms by which pull motivation occurs Cognitive Motivation: pull mechanism – works by visualizing an end-state as a goal and executing a plan or following a script in order to achieve that goal Motivation as anticipation ex: - Goal object: visualizing a pizza - Consummatory behaviour: visualizing eating pizza - Subjective feeling: visualizing the pleasure of eating the pizza Anticipatory Response Mechanism: formulated in order to account for goal motivation - According to this mechanism, the goal evokes excitement in the form of miniscule consummatory behaviours that would occur to the actual goal - An imaginary consummatory response that serves as a sign of an individual’s expectations about the interaction with the goal object Affective forecasting: resembles a weather report but concerns the individual’s expected subjective feelings of pain and pleasure - These feelings arise when the goal is achieved and from the accompanying consummatory behaviour, such as the pleasure of eating pizza when hungry - Anticipating a positive goal is associated with pleasant feelings, while expecting a negative outcome is associated with unpleasant feelings Motivation as a Journey - Begins with choice of motive to be satisfied or goal to be achieve followed by behaviours that will accomplish that o Choice: refers to the selection of the motive or incentive from those vying for satisfaction o Instrumental behaviours: those motivated activities in which a person engages to satisfy a motive - Duration and persistence refer to the amount of time a person persists to satisfy a motive - Frequency: refers to the rate of engaging in a particular behaviour - Intensity or effort: of behaviour varies directly with motivation - As a journey, motivation means that an individual tries to reach or achieve various features of an end-state or goal – these can be visualized cognitively as objects, experiences as anticipatory behaviours, or felt as affect Auxiliary Assumptions about Motivation - Behaviour may not occur if all assumptions are not met - Also necessary: sufficient energy, knowledge and competence Energy: - Psychological energies: or mental energies, have gone by the names cathexis, self-regulation energy, adaptation energy, and processing resources o Cathexis: refers to the accumulation of energy within the brain’s neurons as hypothesized by Freud, behaviours occur when neurons are able to achieve a lower level of energy, this process is accompanied by pleasure o Adaptation energy: coined by Selye, founder of the stress concept  Assumed the body possessed a certain amount of adaptation energy that could be used to overcome stress  Body’s ability to adapt depends upon the amount of available adaptation energy, when adaptation energy runs out, motivation and life cease o Self-regulation / self-control: process refers to the ability to control the effects that a person’s emotions and impulses have on her or his behaviour  Ability allows individuals to weigh the value of larger delayed incentives instead of submitting to current emotions and impulses that yield smaller rewards o Processing resources: the capacities that allow the mind to carry out operations that are necessary for the motivation of behaviour  Information from the environment impinges on the human sense and is briefly held in sensory memory, where some is selected and sent along for further processing  Incoming information is combined with other knowledge that is retrieved from long-term memory  Combined information provides the basis for developing preferences, making decisions, developing goals, and taking action - Physical energy: has a material existence o Exists mainly in the form of glucose – which powers the brain and muscles, without glucose motivation would be impossible  When muscles run low on glucose, an individual feels fatigues and is inclined to rest  Brains uses 25% of the body’s glucose Knowledge, Competence and Motivation - Cognitive knowledge: important because it enables the individual to evaluate incentives, understand how to attain the, and assess the chances of success - Competence: being capable of performing the behaviour necessary to achieve a desired end - Knowledge: implies that a person knows how to perform the behaviour and knows the goal of the behaviour - Competence: implies being able to execute the behaviour SOURCES OF MOTIVATION Internal dispositions that push: classified as biological variables or as psychological variables External sources that pull: labeled as environmental variables (incentives and goals) Biological variables: refer to material characteristics of the body and brain that serve to motivate behaviour (describe a person’s brain and nervous system) - General rule: as biological indicators increase (hunger), motivation for seeking, preparing and eating also increase - Ghrelin: a hormone that is released in the stomach and promotes hunger and eating o Travels in the bloodstream in high levels before mean and decreases after eating Psychological Variables: refer to motives and are studied indirectly through measurable indicators (describe properties of a person’s mind) - Higher-scale scores usually indicate a greater amount of a psychological variable, such as a need or motive - General rule: indictors of a psychological motive increase, the motivation for need-relevant incentives, cosummatory behaviours and associated feelings increase Linking Biological and Psychological Variables - Reductionism: the principle that concepts from psychology can be explained by reducing them to a principle based on the body’s physiology or brain - Emergence: the reverse of reductionism and represents the view that the brain’s neuronal processes generate psychological feelings, which can motivate people to act - Opposite but not equivalent ^ External Sources - - environmental variables: refer to those characteristics of incentives and goals that have the ability to attract or repel - Positive characteristics – attract or pull us toward the incentive - Unattractive characteristics – repel us - General rule: incentives and goals with higher values of attraction or repulsion are more motivating than those with smaller values, thus if the value of an incentive can be determined, then its motivational power is known The Past as a Source of Motivation – evolutionary and personal history - Push motivation – depends on characteristics of the body, brain and mind (biological and psychological variables) - These two variables are the result of our evolutionary history and personal history - Evolutionary history: the remote past, refers to the effects of millions of years of natural selection in shaping motives and emotions that aided survival of the individual species - Consequence of natural selection: relevant motives or emotions increase in frequency in the population - Evolutionary psychology: attempts to understand current human behaviour by relating it to our evolutionary past - Personal history: refers to an individual’s experience from conception to the present o These experiences help shape an individual’s motives and system of values about incentives - Individual differences o Agentic theory: rather than merely reacting, humans also intentionally create the circumstances of their lives, people are not slaves to their environments and instead seek out or create environments in order to satisfy their psychological motives Combined Internal and External Sources Motivate Behaviour - General rule: as the size of the internal motives (thirst drive) and external reward (water) increases, motivated behaviour increases - Emovere (tom move out) – latin word for emotions STUDY OF MOTIVATION AND EMOTION Feasibility and research ethics: determine whether a phenomenon is studied using an experimental or correlational method Experimental research: usually conducted in a laboratory, involves manipulating a motivations variable to determine the effects on any behaviours; these effects are indicative of motivation Correlational research: does not manipulate a variable, involved measuring na existing motivational variable to determine how the measured values are associated with behavioural indicators of motivation Research in Motivation - Experimental variable: the one manipulated by the experimenter to create different levels or values - Correlational variable: contains levels that are measured but not created by the experimenter - Dependent variable: refers to behaviours that depend on the experimental variable, in the case of experimental research ; associated with the levels on the correlational variable, in the case of correlational research Research in Emotion - Emotions: an assortment of experience that include subjective feelings, facial expression, neurophysiological changes, and emotion-linked behaviour o Emotions are evoked by external factors Sources and Scope of Motivation - Biological: the nature of the body and specifically the structure and workings of the brain - Psychological: refers to properties of the human mind, in contrast to the body and brain - Environmental: can be divided into two categories o Objective environment – material things, such as money, grades or prizes o Cognitive representation of some external event – case of cognitive motivation - Amotivation: the complete absence of any motivation - Addiction: the overpowering motivation for drugs Chapter 8 – Drives and Psychological Needs
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