Ch. 15 – Variations in sexual behaviour
Sexual behaviors are the most criticized and examined human behaviours,
even more so than violent behaviours.
Scenario Normal Abnormal
A couple enjoys An issue of personal
experiments S&M role play preference. It is all
using bondage and consensual activity.
occasionally goes to private It is not interfering
parties where they “play” with this daily lives.
with other couples
A women succeeds in Unusual sex
training her cat to lick her object. It is illegal.
vulva to orgasm. She does it An animal doesn’t
when the opportunity have a voice and
presents itself, when she is cannot express
at home alone for example. consent.
A man sits at his computer It’s compulsive; he
masturbating for hours to has no control
straight explicit, over it. It
mainstream porn. When he interferes with his
starts he cannot stop and daily life.
often ends up neglecting
some responsibilities at DSM IV sees it as
work and at home (once OCD.
forgetting his child at day
EXAM Q. DO NO USE THE WORD NORMAL OR ABNORMAL
We should evaluate the three scenarios using these 6 criteria and NOT using
the terms normal/abnormal
Is sexual behavior X Normal/abnormal? IT DEPENDS! It is according to
different approaches and philosophies.
There is no cumulative or additive value. 5 abnormal + 1 normal so it must be
abnormal. NO ! you cannot do this.
There is some interplay between the different views but they are distinct
enough to be
***Alot of these change overtime. Ex: Homosexuality 1969 = not illegal
anymore. Was no longer in DSM as of the 1973.
o Interpretation of the texts changes slowly in regards to religious texts
Take home message that they change all of the time = it is relative in regards
to time, culture, personal values, changes in point of reference (DSM, charter
of rights etc..) Bestiality I’m horny, there is a cat, a cat has a hole. Opportunity presents
itself, using the animal because it is available.
Zoophilia here is my goat and she has a room in my house just for her, and
we are in a relationship, our sex is mutual
Why animals and humans cannot procreate? Around the ova there is a
gelatinous envelope. Sperm has an enzyme that will break it down, this
enzyme is species specific
6 criteria to determine if a sexual behaviour is normal/abnormal
1) THE LAW 3) SOCIAL NORMS 5) PERSONAL
*Criminal Code of Canada *Acceptable/unacceptable VALUES AND
* Charter of Rights * Permitted/unpermitted PREFERENCES
*Lawyer, judge *Tolerated/intolerable * Personal =
*Ex: sex with minors * In the negative sense: individual
* Illegal/Legal Bizarre, disgusting, * Egosyntonic/
*Against the law/in unappealing egodystonic
accordance with the law * Expectations. Ex: Would (In harmony to one’s
* Informed Consent. you expect someone to values or in conflict
Without it you have a have sexual experience with one’s values)
victim before getting married in * People will look at
our society? some of these
*Media: bidirectional, values. Does it give
reflects society norms, but you pleasure or not
also shapes sexual norms. (hedonic and
Ex: unacceptable anhedonic)
acceptable Ex: modern *Satisfying/
family with the unsatisfying
homosexual couple as *In love/not in love
main characters and talk *Very personal
about other things besides * Ex: some
their sexuality (so it is notpedophiles see it as
stereotypical) it goes with their
* Who regulates the personal values and
media: government ! beliefs, while others
(subdivision of CRTC) don’t 2) MEDICAL 4) MORAL VALUES OF A 6) STATISTICS
AUTHORITIES RELIGION * Common/
*DSM (all mental * Good/evil uncommon
disorders, chapter with * Moral/immoral * Common = it is
sexual disorders: 1) * Goes with or against the practiced by a
sexual dysfunction, 2) “book” majority or by a
Paraphilia (pedo, necro) * Sinful/virtue minority of people
3) Sexual (or gender?) *Against nature as god in a given
identity intended it to be population.
* Psychiatrists, * We are talking about *Refers to
physicians, western culture percentages or
psychologists, * Representative of the incidence.
sexologists, therapists, church: priest, pastor * Ex: minority =
* A lot of those *Bible swinging
behaviours fall under *Qur’an * Ex: majority =
psychopathology * Torah intercourse
*Affects your quality of **These are sacred * Looking at
life writings/texts difference
*Healthy/unhealthy * Sexual behaviour in the populations
*Hygienic/unhygienic sanctity of marriage, Majority of
marriage between a man teenagers, minority
and a woman for the sake of teenagers,
of procreation is majority of women,
virtuous/moral/good. minority of women
ANYTHING outside of this * it is just about
is tolerated to different numbers, they are
degrees neutral, no
* Sexual behaviour that is judgment.
deemed immoral: Sex
before marriage, outside
Blue = point of reference Diversity of Sexual Behaviours and Practices
Atypical Variations in Sexual Behaviour
Definition: Statistically uncommon patterns of sexual arousal or behaviour.
Also called unconventional sexual behaviour.
Terms such as deviant, abnormal, perversions, etc. imply a social, moral or
• A diagnostic category used by the American Psychiatric Association to
describe atypical patterns of sexual arousal or behaviour that become
problematic in the eyes of the individual or society and are considered to be
According to the APA’s DSM IV-TR (2000):
Paraphilia is defined as recurrent, intense, sexually arousing fantasies, sexual
urges or behaviours involving:
Most info we have is on men, because they have been caught by the law, a lot
of social repercussions.
Nonhuman objects (Fetishism: shoes, leather, rubber, or undergarments);
o Undergarments the man is getting off by putting on the panties and
seeing them on his body is sexually arousing (in transvestite fetish).
Just caressing them against ones face during masturbation is a lot
o Body part has potential for arousal, as opposed to the person attached
to the body part
The suffering or humiliation of oneself or one’s partner (sexual sadism or
o Trying to challenge this for next DSM
o Consensual SBDM: detailed scenario of role play with an exchange of
power. (for example by inflicting pain) Sadist vs masochist. Dominant
and submissive. Top and Bottom. Master or Mistress / Slave or
o Sadist and masochist will go over lists of things they like and do not
like before hand. Limits are clearly established. Sadist enjoys planning
a sequence of events that fall under submissive limits. So submissive
actually has most control. Sadist also has limits of what they won’t do.
o “Safe, sane and consensual”. Secret or safe word that lets dominant
role that the way the scenario is being played out is no longer sexually
arousing to them. (Usually not stop o