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Chapter 2

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Mark Coates

Chapter 2  Behavioural theories • Basic learning processes that are common to all of us (and many animals) determine our behaviour and our responses to the environment • Classical Conditioning and Operant Conditioning Classical Conditioning • The famous "Pavlov's Dogs" experiment • A neutral stimulus (bell) was repeated paired with a biological relevant stimulus (food), until the bell alone could produce physiological responses that previously occurred to food • Watson’s experiment with Little Albert • Little Albert – tried to condition a fear of rats • Also became afraid of anything small and white, including people with white beards Operant Conditioning • BF Skinner • Specific behaviours can be either reinforced or punished, which increases or decreases the likelihood that they will occur again – Positive reinforcement (addition of positive stimulus, reward) – Negative reinforcement (removal of negative stimulus) – Punishment (addition of negative stimulus or removable of positive stimulus) • Reinforcement schedules affect how strongly a behaviour is promoted or discouraged • *know positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment* • Postive: getting good grade, reward, etc • Negative: also makes behviour more likely to occur • Negative stimulus is taken away • Ex: shocks, loud noises, etc • Variable interval reinforcment: If you recieve the reward sometimes but not always, you are more likely to do the reward • Ex: slot machines Behavioural Theories • Behavioural therapy involves changing the behaviours (surprise!), which consequently has an effect on emotional and psychological functioning • Learning new associations (ie: flying and relaxation to replace flying and anxiety) • Behavioural activation and behaviour schedules • Reward schedules • Have basic learning processes • Change behaviour first and let emotional change follow • Works really good with phobias • Behavioural activation and behaviour schedules – good for mood disorders • Not trying to motivate you to go out with your friends, your just going to do it so your behaviour changes and your emotions usually follow • Reward schedules (charts) • Everytime you brush your teeth you get a prize • If you get so many stickers, you get a prize Cognitive theories • Beck, Ellis • Cognition (thoughts) about the self, others, or the world affect our behaviour and our emotions • Some thoughts are maladaptive and unrealistic – All-or-nothing thinking, catastrophizing, fortune-telling, mindreading, negative filtering, emotional reasoning • Schemas – Deeply held beliefs about the world, self, and others • Therapy often involves challenging negative automatic thoughts • Learning new ways to think about situations (reframing) • Can change the thoughts going through our heads, negative emotions can decrease • Maladaptive thoughts – unrealistically negative • All or nothing – 100% good or 100% bad, no middle ground • If i dont get perfect on this test im going to drop out of school • Catastrophizing – every negative thing that happens is the end of the world • If i dont pass this test im going to drop out of school and not get a job and end up a bag lady on the street • Mountain out of a mole hill • Fortune-telling – i know exactly what is going to happen • Going out on a date, i know he’s not going to like me, he’s not going to call me back, etc • Makes you suffer before anything even happens • Can set up a self fulling prophecy • OCD: If i dont wash my hands i just know im going to get sick • Mindreading – assume others are thinking bad things about you • They think my clothes are bad, they think i dont know what im talking about • The better you get to know someone the worse you are able to read their minds • Negative filtering – “looking at the world through shit colored glasses” • Always sees the negative side of it • 96% on a test = awesome, they see it as where did i lose 4%? • Emotional reasoning – the way i feel about something tells me the reality • I feel like i did bad on the test, therefore i did bad • I feel stupid, therefore i am stupid • Take the emotions of rock solid proof of how things are • Schemas • I am a bad person • The world is a dangerous place • She doesnt love me • Very hard to change Graph • 3 column technique • Write about event that provokes emotion, decribe there thought of it, how they feel, write down another thought you could have had, and how you feel now ( feelings are usually still there but they went down) Cognitive-Behavioural The
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