- Chose the term individual psychology because he was interested in investigating the uniqueness of
- He believed that the individual was indivisible and must be studied as a whole.
- Understanding an individual entails comprehending his or her attitude in relation to the world.
- We are motivated by social interest, and our primary problems are social ones
- Human society is crucial not simply for development if an individual personality, but also for the
orientation of each and every behaviour and emotion in a person’s life.
- Human beings have tamed their instincts and subordinated them to their attitudes towards the
environment. At times, we disobey or deny our natural instincts because of their social relations.
- The urge in human nature to adapt oneself to the conditions of the social environment.
- Subjectively in one’s consciousness of having something in common with other people and being one
of them. Objectively it is seen in cooperation with others toward the betterment of human society.
- Does not automatically emerge, nor does it invariable find constructive expression. It must be nurtured
- If we know a person’s goal, we begin to understand in a general way the individual’s behaviour.
- He emphasized the purposefulness of human behaviour by recognizing that the motivational force of
every human action is the goal or future orientation of that action.
- Adler agreed with Jung that teleology is necessary for a full understanding of personality. For Adler, the
goal that the individual pursues is the decisive factor, and he called this concept of goal orientation
the principle of finalism.
- Many of our goals are fictions: we cannot know whether or not our goals are true or false because
there is no way to scientifically test them. In other words, we are unable to have a complete
understanding of things as they really are, so we structure our own idea of reality.
- Fictional Fictionalism: people create fictions or guiding ideas and then behave “as if” their goals were
o May be healthy or unhealthy
o The goal should be judged according to its usefulness
Striving for Superiority
- The psyche has its primary objective the goal of superiority: the ultimate fictional finalism for which all
human beings strive, and it gives unity and coherence to the personality. - Aggression- will to power- power and striving for superiority- finally, he changed from stiving for
individual to striving for a superior society.
- The strive for superiority meant the desire to be competent and effective in whatever one strives to do.
o Perfection- “completed” or “made whole”
- He believed it is innate; and part of the struggle for survival that humans share with other species and
the process of evolution.
- Life is encouraged by the desire to move from below to above, from minus to plus, from inferior to
superior. (adapting oneself and mastering its environment)
- Inferiority feelings have their origin in our encounter as infants with the environment. We are born
immature, incomplete, and incompetent to satisfy even our basic needs. Such feelings are inescapable
but also invaluable because they provide the major motivating force that leads to growth. Our efforts
and success at growth and development may be seen as attempts to compensate for and overcome
our imagined or real inferiorities and weaknesses.
- Not deviant but are the basis for all forms of human accomplishment and improvement in life.
- Masculine protest: the compensation for one’s inferiorities
- Psychological differences between men and women are the result of cultural attitudes and pointed out
the devastating effects of these attitudes on the lives of children. Such biases disturb the psychologi