Chapter Two- Psychoanalysis
Freud began using the “talking method” with his own patients, and he concluded that at the time
of the original trauma the patient had to hold back a strong emotion. The patient had forgotten
the event and was unconscious or aware of it.
- His concept of unconscious processes is a dynamic one in which certain forces
repress undesirable thoughts and then actively resist their becoming conscious.
An emotion that is prevented from expressing itself normally may be expressed through neurotic
- Wishes are repressed because they are at odds with a person’s self-concept.
- Ideally, the expression of emotions is non-destructive.
Free association: the patient is asked to verbalize whatever comes to mind no matter how
insignificant, trivial or even unpleasant the idea might be. Later they reflect on their associations.
- Was used to help his patients recover repressed ideas.
Freud considered slips and dreams to be the royal road to the unconscious.
- Slips are bungled acts: a slip of the tongue, or a lapse of memory. It expresses a
personal motive as well.
- The manifest dream: is the dream as it is remembered the next morning
o Disguised fulfillment of repressed wishes
- The latent dream: is the meaning or motive underlying the manifest dream
Dream work: disguises the unconscious dream wishes and converts them into the manifest
- Symbols- may be unique to the individual or universal
The nature of our repressed wishes and desires is sexual.
- Sexuality is pleasure seeking.
- Drive: a psychological or mental representation of an inner bodily source of excitement
o Form of energy that cannot be reduced to either a bodily aspect or a mental one
because it combines both components.
- Libido: the emotional and psychic energy derived from the biological drive of sexuality.
Psychosexuality: the totality of elements included in the sexual drive
2 basic groups of impulse drives: 1. Eros: life impulses or drives
- Maintain life processes and ensure reproduction
- “sexual drive” – energy force is libido
2. Thanatos: death impulses or drives, is a biological reality
- Source of aggression
- Reflects the ultimate resolution of all life’s tension in death
The child is polymorphous perverse: children’s activities differ in many respects from
reproductive sexual activity
Autoerotic: seeks pleasure form their own bodies
- Sucking thumbs, playing with genitals, etc.
- The libido invests itself in various erogenous zones
- Oral stage: birth to age 1
o pleasure and pain in mouth
- Anal stage: age 2
o Converting an involuntary action into a voluntary one
o Self-control and mastery
o Libido energy is focused on anus and buttocks