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Public Administration
Frank Ohemeng

PAP2300 READING 3Inwood Chapter 34Perspectives on Bureaucratic OrganizationPublic bureaucracy organizaing principle of governmentOrganization theory originated from studies about how to imprtove the management of private sector organizations so associated with schools of business managementOrganization theory talks about our need to understand what people do how things get done and why we have organizationsTheory set of propositions which seek to explain or predict somethingOrganizational shift towards rationality impersonality and efficiency how to marry with administrative values such as democracy and fairnessClassic TheoristsPondered the effect on the power structure of society of the development of large scale organizationsKarl MarxoFocused on class conflict and alienation in his study of bureaucracyobureaucracy helped pave way for capitalism there to maintain status quo as seen when it reverted to its role of supporting the ruling interests of societyoInfluenced by Hegel bureaucracy represents a bridge between state and civil societyStategeneral common interest universal class medium through which particular interest could be transformedRejected by Marx state bureaucracy no representation of general will but people in a set of relationships involving the exercise of power bureaucracy motivated by the desire to climb the ladder for power status and prestigeHierarchal structure meant that abuse from lower officials is redressed by superiorsDisagreed with bureaucracy as the universal element in society interests arent universal it is a special interest not above personal interest ie power and positionsHierarchy more likely to abuse citizens than lower officialsHierarchy leads to punishment of officials who commit offences against the hierarchy itself and protects the official when the hierarchy commits an offence against the peopleoHierarchy reduce abuse by superior officialsoCapitalist society marked by class conflict in which capitalist oppresses and exploits the working for profitRole of bureaucracy in capitalist society maintain the class distinctions and domination that sustained the rule of the business class mask domination by presenting itself as general interest and maintained by autonomy pg 63oThe state is relatively autonomous from capitalist class but serves its long term interestsUsing autonomy freedom of action from the ruling business class to mask dominationMay not appear to counter business class but bureaucracy always acts on the long term interest of the capitalist class since purpose is to sustain power to dominant classoBureaucracy has own interests focused on own survival and career building oSociety and bureaucrats suffer from alienation derived by bureaucratic hierarchal structureSaw bureaucracy as one of the primary instritutions responsible for alienation as it is felt by citizens as distant impersonal and oppressive also occurs within bureaucracy nature hidden from itself so that workers view their jobs as essential instead of parasitic sustained by hierarchy discipline and authorityoClass struggle results in revolution leading to classless society in which state and bureaucracy will gradually wither awaywanted communism class exploitation ends no need for institutions that sustained itoCriticismsDidnt elaborate on ideasNeomarxists claim that any state policy that assists capital is evidence of the state serving the capitalist class and any that serve working class serves the interests of the capital by legitimizing the capitalist systemArgue that bureaucracy is a tool of capitalist class but that its become too powerfulNeoMarxixsts
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