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University of Ottawa
Religious Studies
Peter Beyer

SRS 2195 READINGS: Introduction: The Multiple Secularisms of Modern Democratic and Non-Democratic Regimes By Alfred Stepan Secularism: The view that public education and other matters of civil policy should be conducted without the introduction of a religious element. (dictionaryreference.com) Religions are transnational and we are living in a time of global movement of populations that are able to stay connected with the sources of their religion as well as being influenced by it by the media, internet and actual religious leaders from their countries resident in the diasporas. “Twin tolerations”: Democracies don’t necessarily need the concept of secularism… but democratic institutions do need sufficient political space from religion to function. (just as citizens need to be given sufficient space by democratic institutions to exercise their religion.) Secularism can be and has been an integral part of non-democracies and is therefore not a sufficient condition of democracy and not necessary for its analysis. There are multiple types of secularisms that can fulfill the “twin tolerations” - Eastern Europe has the patterns: “Multiple secularisms” • “Established religion pattern” (Sweden, Denmark and Norway) • “Positive accommodation” (Netherlands, Belgium, Switzerland and Germany) • “Respect all, positive cooperation, principled distance” (India, Senegal and Indonesia) • “Separatist secularism” Is the concept of secularism necessary to analyze democracy? st No, Robert Dahl, Arend Lijphart and Juan L. Linz (1 3 winners of the nobel prize of political Science) did not feel the need to include any discussion of secularism in their definitions of modern democracies. However Linz and Bowen are aware that democracies need to overcome a variety of emipical and historical processes often called “secularisation” to facilitate the reduction of religious prerogatives in polity in order to become democratic. Simplistic versions of modernization theory imply that there are at least 4 reinforcing and compounding dichotomies (paradoxes) related to modernity and religion: - Traditional vs. modern - High-religious practicing societies vs. low practice - Little separation of religion and state vs. democratic regimes - non-democratic regimes vs. democratic Separation of religion and the state is not the empirical norm in modern Euro democracies (stats p. 117) • Separatism: as a model (even in demo variants) can historically be established for dif purposes and diff results  ex: France and USA: 2 long-standing democracies with greatest legal separation between rel and state  France: Catholic church part of anti-Republican coakition in 3 Republicrd Laicite created in 1905 being clerically hostile form of freedom of state from rel  USA: 1 Ammendment: clerically friendly(advocating the power or influence of the clergy in politics,government, etc.: a clerical party.) Made to prevent Congress to establish one official rel for USA as a whole, not separate states • Complete separatism may produce its wn tensions and inflexibilities in demo  France because of model of Republican interests, it is difficult to manage ethnic and rel demands of some of its 2 and 3 generation muslims citizens (affirmative action being illegal)— - Arab sounding names disadvantaged or jobs, don’t know how many of rel (census), restrictive policies more than any other Western Euro state (ban on headscarf in primary& secondary schools, bureaucracy barriers against building a mosque, lack of islamic funding for learning (even though it funds catholic primary schools) (118)  USA: open to rel find it dif t control some of the demands of rapidly growing and pol assertive fund rel groups from all rel - Ex: Christian Evangelical and Jewish groups violate US Tax code, inter law and formal goals of US policy by funding growth of illegal settlements in West Bank and get a tax break for doing so and is showcased online and known by all (open) - Don’t prosecute them because rel friendly tradition discourages detailed inquiry into sources and uses of rel funds (119) • Separatist secularism as Dichotimy (& demo-authoritarian Continuum): - Low state controlling separatist secularism is ully consistent with twin tolerations in a demo (state controls at high end of continuum are not) - Turkey seen as following strict separation of church and state like the French model of 1905 - Turkey on the separatist side  secularism fundamentally democratic - France & Turkey identifiable as laicite separatism – seen as pol similar - Classify sys by how much and how they control minority and majority rel 6 sharp diff between Turkey and France: 1. Dep of rel affairs of prime minister chooses and writes Friday topics for Friday sermons --- no control of content for prayer in France 2. All mosques allowed to have public ceremonies and controlled by state and clerics and must be authorized and approved states employees—no control of clergy and rel establishment in France 3. Sufis and Sunnis – 2 large groups in Turkey (and Alevis self-identify as non sunni) don’t have financial support of Diyanet – sufis or alevis cant practice their rel in public – illegal to construct rel spces – in france no mainsteam rel is forbidden to build even though it is diff 4. Graduates of public Islamic schools forced to go to uni in theology, France no such exclusion for Catholic schools 5. T: No teach quran to younger than 12yrs old – France no ban 6. Turkey still doesn’t fully recognize rights of
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