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Chapter 10

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University of Ottawa

Chapter 10Dec 10 2010SOC1101Were all both benefitedharmed bc of our being male or female Gender is a social construction with imp consequences in everyday life Gender stereotypes hold that menwomen are inherently diff in attributes behaviouraspirationsDefine men as strong rational dominant independentless concerned with their looksWomen as weak emotional nurturing dependentanxious about their appearanceThese ve stereotypes have confininglimiting effects on both gendersthey createperpetuate sexist beliefs attitudesideologiesSexism the subordination of 1 sex usually female based on the assumed superiority of the other sexAimed at women it has 3 components1ve attitudes towards women2Stereotypical beliefs that reinforce complement or justify the prejudice3Discriminationacts that exclude distance or keep woman separateMen can be victims of sexism as well through sexist assumptionsSexism is used to justify discriminatory treatmentWomen are targets of prejudicediscrimination when participating in genderinappropriate endeavours at work home or in leisureManifestations outward demonstrations of sexism incl the undervaluing of womens work hiringpromotion practices that excl women from an organization or confine them to the bottom of the hierarchythe denial of equal access for women to educational opportunitiesWomen encounter hurdles that men dont face when they have jobs like firefighting welding dentistryarchitectureMen entering femaledominated occupations like nursing also have challenges in overcoming sexist attitudesSexism is related to patriarchyPatriarchy a hierarchical system of social organization in which cultural politicaleconomic structures are controlled by menReflected in the way men think of their position as men as a givenMen seen as natural heads of households political candidates corp execs university presidents etcWomen however deliberate on what their position in a society should beMens subordinates playing supportive roles as housewife mother nursesecretaryMatriarchy a hierarchical system of social organization in which cultural politicaleconomic structures are controlled by womenFew societies are organized this waySex The Biological DimensionGender refers to the distinctive qualities of menwomen masculinity and femininity that are culturally created Sex the biologicalanatomical diffs btw femalesmalesBig diff is the chromosomal info transmitted when a child is conceivedMother contributes an X chromosomeFather gives either an X female embryo or a Y chromosome male embryo the genitalia used in the reproductive processPrimary sex characteristicsAt birth these primary sex characteristics distinguish btw malefemaleSecondary sex characteristics the physical traits other than reproductive organs that identify an individs sexResults from increased production of hormones during pubertyFor women incl larger breasts wider hips narrower shoulders layer of fatty tissue throughout bodymenstruationFor men incl development of enlarged genitals deeper voice greater height more muscular buildmore body and facial hairHermaphroditesTranssexualsSex isnt always clearcutHermaphrodite a person in whom sexual differentiation is ambiguous or incompleteProduced through a hormone imbalance before birthTend to have a combo of femalemale genitaliaChromosomally normal XY male born with a penis of 1cm with a urinary opening like that of a femaleTranssexual person in whom the sexrelated structures of the brain that define gender identity are opp from the physical sex organs of the persons bodyGenetically of 1 sex but have a gender identity of the otherFeel theyre the opp sex from that of their sex organsConflict btw gender identityphysical sexSome of them take hormone treatments of have a sexchange operation to alter their genitalia to achieve a body that agrees with their sense of sexual identityLead lives compatible with their true sexual identityWestern societies only acknowledge 2 sexes while other societies recognize 3Men womanberdachesxanithsbiological amles who behave dress workare treated as womenIn Western societies this is similar to a transvestiteTransvestite a male who lives as a women or a female who lives as a man but who doesnt alter the genitaliardNot treated as a 3 sex
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