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Chapter 11-13

Chapter 11 - 13 Notes

11 Pages
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Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANT101H5
Professor
Sherry Fukuzawa

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Chapter 11: Cultivation and Domestication
-Neolithic period
oBegan 11000 years ago in Southwest asia when first domesticated plants
appear; in East was when pottery began
Post Glacial Roots of Farming and Pastoralism
-12000 years ago glaciers started melting sea levels mammoths disappeared for
ever due to warm climate
-new forests emerged in the North, hunter was harder
ohad to kill a variety of smaller birds and animals
-rising plant food was more abundant and new sources of fish
-some called it Mesolithic (Middle stone age) others called it Epipalaeolithic (refer
to by Near East)
Early Postglacial Tools and Weapons
-effective axes and adzes
-less prone to breakage under heavy duty
-ground stone tools easier to sharpen
ohelped clear out forest
ocreate canoes and boats
-deadliest weapon was the bow and arrow with microlith arrowhead
-made sickles, harpoons, arrows and daggers
-pottery manufacturing
ooldest dates between 17000 and 15000 years ago in Japan
oproper firing is tricky as the object must be heated sufficiently that the
clay will harden and resist disintegration from moisture
obrought about new food preparation and storage methods
ofood can be boiled in pottery vessels
osocial group membership can be designed on pottery by paint
Cultural Diversity in Postglacial Period
-Natufian culture
oEpipalaeolithic culture of Israel, Lebanon and Syria between about 12500
and 10200 years ago
oDead buried in communal cemeteries
oHave storage pits beneath the floors of houses indicates earliest known
Epipalaeolithic people known to have stored plant foods
-Archaic culture
oRefer to Mesolithic cultures in the Americas
oMaritime Archaic culture
Centered on Gulf of St Lawrence
Hunted swordfish
Developed first known elaborate burial ceremonialism in North
America
www.notesolution.com
oShellmounds: extensive deposit of refuse including quantities of shell left
behind by people
oDomesticate plants such as marsh elder and sunflower
oLow level food producers: are neither hunting gathering nor farming
societies
Management techniques to secure resources may include
nonintensive growing of domesticated organisms
oAnthropogenesis: process whereby humans modify their environment
consciously or not
oLongest living low level producer was Jomon as affluent foragers with
hierarchical social organization and food storage.
Neolithic Revolution
-dependence upon domesticated plants and animals
-Domestication: evolutionary process where humans modify the genetic makeup of
a population of plants or animals
Evidence of Early Plant Domestication
-increased size
-reduction of natural means of seed dispersal
odomesticated plants without brittle rachis nodes can carry plants home
without losing the grain
-reduction of husks or distasteful chemical compounds
-loss of delayed seed germination
-development of simultaneous ripening of the seed or fruit
-structural change from soft to a tough stem involves unconscious selection
opreservation of valued individuals and the destruction of less valued ones
with no thought as to long range consequences.
Evidence of Early Animal Domestication
-kill the male and breed the females
-the switch to food productions was not the result of discoveries
-switch from food foraging to food production does not free people from hard
work in fact takes longer hours
-food production is not necessarily a more secure means of subsistence than food
foraging
Why Humans Became Food Producers
-desiccation or oasis theory
oGordon Childe
oglacial cover over Europe and Asia caused a southern shift in rain patterns
from Europe to Northern Africa and Southwest Asia
oas glaciers and rain retreated the place became drier and people were
forced to congregate at oases for water
www.notesolution.com
ohad no choice but to cultivate and animal domestication began when oases
attracted hungry animals
-Hilly flanks theory
oRobert Braidwood
oPlants and animals were domesticated by people living in hill surrounding
the Fertile Crescent
oBegan to settle in and become familiar with plants and animals
oExperimented with grass and animals bringing them domesticated
oProblems
ethnocentric believing that food foragers do not know plants
-Population Theory
oSouthwest Asia people adapted to cool dry conditions of last glacial period
by developing mixed pattern of resource utilization.
oDid so well that their population grew requiring development of new ways
of providing sufficient food
oProblems
Require an intentional decision on the part of the people involved
to become producers
People could have no way of knowing plants and animals could be
radically transformed
Could not have a immediate effect
-Now know that earliest plant domestication took place in lands just east of
Mediterranean Sea
oNatufians adapted by modifying strategies in two ways
Fired landscape to promote browsing by red deer and gazelles
Placed greater emphasis on wild seeds from annual plants that
could be effectively stored to see people through dry season
Importance of stored and cultivated foods coupled with scarcity of
reliable water sources promoted more sedentary living patterns
Implements were not invented
-Animal domestication
oSoutheast Asia
oTranshumance : among pastoralists, the grazing sheep and goats in low
steppe lands in the winter and then moving to high pastures on the
plateaus in the summer
oAnimals were also transhumant where people followed these animals in
seasonal migrations
Other Centers of Domestication
-East Asia
o2 most important crops in world include rice and soybean
oWater buffalo and East Asian pig
oNorth from yellow river valley into Liao River
oYangtze River basin
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 11: Cultivation and Domestication - Neolithic period o Began 11000 years ago in Southwest asia when first domesticated plants appear; in East was when pottery began Post Glacial Roots of Farming and Pastoralism - 12000 years ago glaciers started melting sea levels mammoths disappeared for ever due to warm climate - new forests emerged in the North, hunter was harder o had to kill a variety of smaller birds and animals - rising plant food was more abundant and new sources of fish - some called it Mesolithic (Middle stone age) others called it Epipalaeolithic (refer to by Near East) Early Postglacial Tools and Weapons - effective axes and adzes - less prone to breakage under heavy duty - ground stone tools easier to sharpen o helped clear out forest o create canoes and boats - deadliest weapon was the bow and arrow with microlith arrowhead - made sickles, harpoons, arrows and daggers - pottery manufacturing o oldest dates between 17000 and 15000 years ago in Japan o proper firing is tricky as the object must be heated sufficiently that the clay will harden and resist disintegration from moisture o brought about new food preparation and storage methods o food can be boiled in pottery vessels o social group membership can be designed on pottery by paint Cultural Diversity in Postglacial Period - Natufian culture o Epipalaeolithic culture of Israel, Lebanon and Syria between about 12500 and 10200 years ago o Dead buried in communal cemeteries o Have storage pits beneath the floors of houses indicates earliest known Epipalaeolithic people known to have stored plant foods - Archaic culture o Refer to Mesolithic cultures in the Americas o Maritime Archaic culture Centered on Gulf of St Lawrence Hunted swordfish Developed first known elaborate burial ceremonialism in North America www.notesolution.com o Shellmounds: extensive deposit of refuse including quantities of shell left behind by people o Domesticate plants such as marsh elder and sunflower o Low level food producers: are neither hunting gathering nor farming societies Management techniques to secure resources may include nonintensive growing of domesticated organisms o Anthropogenesis: process whereby humans modify their environment consciously or not o Longest living low level producer was Jomon as affluent foragers with hierarchical social organization and food storage. Neolithic Revolution - dependence upon domesticated plants and animals - Domestication: evolutionary process where humans modify the genetic makeup of a population of plants or animals Evidence of Early Plant Domestication - increased size - reduction of natural means of seed dispersal o domesticated plants without brittle rachis nodes can carry plants home without losing the grain - reduction of husks or distasteful chemical compounds - loss of delayed seed germination - development of simultaneous ripening of the seed or fruit - structural change from soft to a tough stem involves unconscious selection o preservation of valued individuals and the destruction of less valued ones with no thought as to long range consequences. Evidence of Early Animal Domestication - kill the male and breed the females - the switch to food productions was not the result of discoveries - switch from food foraging to food production does not free people from hard work in fact takes longer hours - food production is not necessarily a more secure means of subsistence than food foraging Why Humans Became Food Producers - desiccation or oasis theory o Gordon Childe o glacial cover over Europe and Asia caused a southern shift in rain patterns from Europe to Northern Africa and Southwest Asia o as glaciers and rain retreated the place became drier and people were forced to congregate at oases for water www.notesolution.com
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