• We are better prepared to face the future because, unlike our ancestors, we have
knowledge of how and why old societies failed/succeeded.
• Achange in the genetic structure of a population from one generation to the next.
Appearance of new species.
• The field of inquiry that studies human culture and evolutionary aspects of human
biology; includes cultural anthropology, archeology, linguistics, and physical
Genetics, anatomy, skeletal structure, adaptation to disease, and other environmental
• An approach to research whereby a problem is identified, a hypothesis (or hypothetical
explanation) is stated, and that hypothesis is tested through the collection and analysis of
• The mutual, interactive evolution of human biology and culture; the concept that biology
makes culture possible and that developing culture further influences the direction of
biological evolution; a basic concept in understanding the unique components of human
• humans are combined effort of biology and culture
• All aspects of human adaptation, including technology, traditions, language, religion and
social roles. Culture is a set of learned behaviour; it is transmitted from one generation to
the next through learning and not by biological or genetic means.
• Strategy by which we adapt to natural and social environments in which they live
• Agroup of organisms that can interbreed to produce fertile offspring. Members of one
species are reproductively isolated from members of all other species (i.e., they can’t
mate with them to produce fertile offspring).
• a group of people who share a common culture Enculturation
• the process why which individuals, generally as children, learn the values and beliefs of
family, peer groups, and society in which they are raised
• Functional response of organisms or populations to the environment.Adaptation results
from evolutionary change (specifically, as a result of natural selection)
• Study of humankind
• Integrates the findings of many disciplines, including sociology, economics, history,
psychology, and biology
• CulturalAnthropology study ofthspects of human behaviour
o Enlightenment an 18 century philosophical movement in Western Europe that
assumed a knowable order to the natural world and the interpretive value of
reason as the primary means of identifying and explaining this order.
o Ethnographies Detailed descriptive studies of human societies. In cultural
anthropology, it’s the traditional study of non-Western societies
Early ethnographies were narratives emphasizing religion, ritual, myth,
symbols and etc.
Urban anthropology Subfield of cultural anthropology dealing with issues
of inner cities
Medical anthropology relationship between various cultural attributes and
health and disease
Applied anthropology practical applications and are pursued by
anthropologists working both within and outside the university setting
• PhysicalAnthropology study of human biology within the framework of evolution and
with an emphasis on the interaction between biology and culture
o Paleoanthropology The interdisciplinary approach to the study of earlier
hominins, their chronology, physical structure, archeological remains, habitats and
o HomininAmember of the tribe Hominini, the evolutionary group that includes
modern humans and now extinct bipedal relatives
o Anthropometry measurement of human body parts. When osteologists measure
skeletal elements, the term osteometry is often used.
o today concerned with human variation because of its adaptive significance and
because they want to identify the evolutionary factors that have produces
o Genetics the study of gene structure and action and of the patterns of inheritance
of traits from parent to offspring. Genetic mechanisms are the underlying
foundation for evolutionary change
Molecular anthropologists use cutting edge technologies to investigate
evolutionary relationships between human populations and well as
between humans and nonhuman primates Primates members of the mammalian order including prosimians,
monkeys, apes and humans
• Similarities and differences in DNAsequences between
individuals, populations and species.
o Primatology the study of biology and behaviour of nonhuman primate