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Chapter 7

Chapter 7 Anthro Textbook.docx

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Kenneth Derry

Primate Behaviour -Chapter 7- Behavior anything organisms do that involves action in response to internal or external stimuli; the response of an individual, group, or species to its environment. Such responses may or may not be deliberate, and they aren’t necessarily the result of conscious decision making Eg. Horse doesn’t deliberately throw you off when it feels scared The Evolution of Behaviour • Study behaviour from and ecological perspective (relationships between organisms and all aspects of their environment) • Approach is called behavioural ecology study of evolution of behaviour emphasizing the role of ecological factors • Behaviours have evolved through the operation of natural selection • Most behavioural patterns in species aren’t learnt • Behaviour must be viewed as the product of complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors • History has been shaped by the ecological setting not only of living species but also of their ancestors • Social structure the composition, size and sex ratio of a group of animals o Factors that influence social structure  Body Size larger animals require fewer calories per unit of weight than smaller animals because larger animals have less surface area relative to body mass than smaller animals  Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) metabolism (chemical process that breaks down nutrients and releases energy)  Diet energy intake  Distribution of resources clumped food for Matrilines (groups that consist of a female, her daughters, and their offspring  Predation vulnerable to many types of predators, including snakes, birds of prey, leopards, wild dogs, and other primates  Relationships with other, non predatory species eg. Predator avoidance  Dispersal primates leave their natal group  Life Histories Life History traits development stages that typify members of a given species and therefore influence potential reproductive rates  Activity patterns diurnal or nocturnal  Human Activities human hunting and forest clearing Why Be Social • Predator defence> competition • Primate Social Behaviour o Dominance  Dominance hierarchies social organization wherein individuals within a group are ranked relative to one another • Serve to reduce physical violence • Dominant animals given priority • Higher ranking primates have more surviving infants • All primates learn their position in the hierarchy o Communication  Communication any act that conveys information (messages) • Includes autonomic responses (physiological responses not under voluntary control (eg. Erection of body hair during excitement) • Gestures, facial expressions and vocalizations • Grooming (picking through fur to remove dirt, parasites and other materials that may be present) also serves in a number of situations to indicate submission or reassurance • Primates also communicate through displays (repetitious behaviours that serve to communicate emotional states o Aggressive Interactions  Can lead to affiliative behaviours (amicable associations between individuals)  Instead of actual attacks or fighting, most intragroup (within the group as opposed to) aggression occurs in the form of various signals and displays, frequently within the context of a dominance hierarchy  Between groups aggression is used to protect resources or territories  Core area portion of a home range containing the highest concentration and most reliable supplies of food and water. The core area is defended.  not all primates are territorial o Affiliation and Altruism  To minimize aggression, promote group cohesion  Physical contact is one of most important factors in primate development  In humans compassion motivated by empathy (ability to identify with the feelings and thoughts of another individual  Grooming one of mos
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