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Chapter 9-10

Chapter 9 - 10 Notes

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Sherry Fukuzawa

Chapter 9 Archaic Homo Sapiens or Other Species - Modern humans belong to species of Homo Sapiens - Middle Pleistocence (800,000 120,000 years ago) o Hominins that differ from H eectusergaster yet did not have all the traits of modern humans Homo Heidelgergensis - like erectusergaster - face and brow ridges were large and the cranial vault was relatively thick - brain size was larger, braincase was rounded, back of cranium was more rounded - best candidate to be the common ancestor to both Neandertals and H Sapiens - at various sites a number of hominin fossils have been found - most consists of parts of one or very few individuals, the one exception of large number of bones and teeth from Sierra de Atapuerca in Northern Spain where heidelgergensis were found o 32 individuals of both sexes, juveniles as well as adults were deliberately dumped into a deep cave known as Sima de los Huesoss (Pit of bones) Levalloisian Technique - Levalloisan technique: tool making technique by which three or four long triangular flakes were detached from a specially prepared core. - Another breakthrough was hafting o Affixing of small stone bifaces and flakes in handles of wood - to make and improve spears and knives - These new composite tools involved three components o Assembly of a handle or shaft o Stone insert o Binding materials - Another development in Africa, was the increasing use of yellow and red pigments of iron oxide o Signal rise in ritual activity like presaged burial of the dead Neandetals - First appearance is early as 800,000 years ago - Neandertals are more closely related to one another than to modern humans o Analyzed mitochondria DNA o Studies using mitochondria DNA indicate maternal DNA from Neandertals is virtually absent in modern humans - Neandertals and modern humans began to diver around 500,000 years ago www.notesolution.com
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