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Chapter 4

ANT203 notes CH4-6 (8e).docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Esteban Parra

ANT203 notes Chapter 4 Biological species concept - organisms from different populations are considered to be in the same species if they naturally interbreed and produce fertile offspring. Anagenesis: The transformation of a single species over time. Chronospecies: Labels given to different points in the evolutionary lineage of a single species over time. As a species changes over time, the different stages are labeled as chronospecies in recognition of the biological changes that have taken place. Cladogenesis: The formation of one or more new species from another over time. Speciation - The origin of a new species. Reproductive isolation -The genetic isolation of populations that may render them incapable of producing fertile offspring. - elimination or reduction of gene flow between populations -Geographic isolation most common, behavioural isolation (feeding habits, awake during diff hours) Genetic divergence -once gene flow has ceases other evolutionary forces will cause the species to diverge -natural selection once thought to be the sole reason for speciation Adaptive radiation: The formation of many new species following the avail-ability of new environments or the development of a new adaptation. Modes of Macroevolution Gradualism -A model of macroevolutionary change whereby changes occur at a slow, steady rate over time. -natural selection slowly operating on some initial mutation -Fossils will show a smooth transition Punctuated Equilibrium -A model of macroevolutionary change in which long periods of little evolutionary change (stasis) are followed by relatively short periods of rapid evolutionary change. - speciation will occur within small, isolated populations - When the environment changes too rapidly or when the appropriate genetic variations do not exist, a species can become extinct. - Orthogenesis: A discredited idea that evolution will continue in a given direction because of some vaguely defined “force.” -bigger or newer isn’t better, natural selection doesn’t always work, no set direction in evolution -Doesn’t provide perfect structures, not all structures from adaptions (ex: appendix) -current structures not always used for current functions (Natural selection operates on the variation that is present. Structures are frequently modified for different uses) Classification of species Homology: Similarity due to descent from a common ancestor Homoplasy: Similarity due to independent evolution Parallel evolution: Independent evolution of traits in closely related species. Convergent evolution: Independent evolution of similar traits in rather distinct evolutionary lines. Primitive trait: A trait that has not changed from an ancestral state. Derived trait: A trait that has changed from an ancestral state. -Comparing traits, are they shared or unique (EX: no tail is a shared derived trait in humans and apes, walking upright is a unique derived trait) Approaches to classification Evolutionary systematics: A school of thought that stresses the overall similarity of all (primitive and derived) homologous traits in classification. Cladistics: A school of thought that stresses evolutionary relationships between organisms based on shared derived traits. Outgroup: a group used for comparison in cladistic analyses to determine whether the ancestral state of a trait is primitive or derived Special Topic “The Sixth Finger” – an episode which the plot is centered around the idea that there is a goal to evolution and you can travel backwards and forwards along the evolutionary line. Chapter 5 Primates: The order of mammals that has a complex of characteristics related to an initial adaptation to life in the trees. Chordata: A vertebrate phylum consisting of organisms that possess a notochord at some period during their life. Notochord: A flexible internal rod that runs along the back of an animal (in gestation) Vertebrata: A subphylum of the phylum Chordata, defined by the presenceof an internal, segmented spinal column and bilateral symmetry. Bilateral symmetry: Symmetry in which the right and left sides of the body are approximately mirror images. Characteristics of Mammals Reproduction: -Placenta mammals: live birth; High survival chance, high energy cost -Lay eggs -Immature baby (kangaroos) -More pre and postnatal care (few offspring) Temperature Regulation Homeotherm: An organism capable of maintaining a constant body temperature under most circumstances. Behavior -All vertebrates have a hindbrain, a midbrain, and a forebrain. -Hindbrain is associated with hearing, balance, reflexive behaviors, and control of the autonomic functions of the body, such as breathing. -The midbrain is associated with vision -Forebrain is associated with chemical sensing, such as smelling ability -cerebrum: The area of the forebrain that consists of the outermost layer of brain cells, associated with memory, learning, and intelligence. Structure -Hooves = specialized -primate skeleton = general binocular stereoscopic vision: Overlapping fields of vision, with both sides of the brain receiving images from both eyes, thereby providing depth perception. -Japanese macaque monkeys on the island of Koshima during the 1950s = learned behaviour Primate suborders Prosimii (prosimians): The suborder of primates that are biologically primitive compared to anthropoids. Anthropoidea (anthropoids): The suborder of primates consisting of monkeys, apes, and humans. Prosimians -Old world Nocturnal: Active during the night. Diurnal: Active during the day. Loris: A nocturnal pro-simian found today in Asia and Africa. -small, solitary, nocturnal Tarsier: A no
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